Empty nose syndrome

Open access

Abstract

Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a clinical entity lacking consensual meaning, illustrating a rare nose surgery complication, particularly of nasal conchae surgery, which results in the destruction of the normal nasal tissue. In severe forms it may become debilitating; the inability in identification and appreciation of this syndrome turns detrimental to the patient. Physiopathology remains controversial, which probably implies disorders caused by excessive nasal permeability, affecting neurosensory receptors as well as the humidification functions and conditioning of inhaled air. Neuropsychological involvement is being suspected. Symptomatology is both variable and changeable, the most evident sign outlining paradoxical nasal obstruction. The diagnosis is based on a series of symptoms that need to be collected precisely, the objective examination that highlights the permeability of nasal fossae. The management is problematic; there are implemented a complete range of simple hygiene and humidification techniques of the nasal cavity and, for more severe cases, surgery is provided, regardless of technique, the surgery targeting partial filling of the nasal airways. Prevention is the most essential strategy along with basic conservative surgical techniques.

1. Sozansky J., Houser S.M. - Pathophysiology of empty nose syndrome. Laryngoscope, 2015;125(1):70-74. doi:

2. Chhabra N., Houser S.M. - The diagnosis and management of empty nose syndrome. Otolaryngol Clin North Am., 2009;42(2):311-330, ix. doi:

3. Coste A., Dessi P., Serrano E. - Empty nose syndrome. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis., 2012;129(2):93-97. doi:

4. Freund W., Wunderlich A.P., Stöcker T., Schmitz B.L., Scheithauer M.O. - Empty nose syndrome: limbic system activation observed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Laryngoscope, 2011;121(9):2019-2025. doi:

5. Scheithauer M.O. - Surgery of the turbinates and “empty nose” syndrome. GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg., 2010;9:Doc03. doi:

6. Baraniuk J.N., Merck S.J. - Neuroregulation of human nasal mucosa. Ann N Y Acad Sci., 2009;1170:604-609. doi:

7. Zhao K., Blacker K., Luo Y., Bryant B., Jiang J. - Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance. PLoS One, 2011;6:e24618.

8. Wu X., Myers A.C., Goldstone A.C., Togias A., Sanico A.M. - Localization of nerve growth factor and its receptors in the human nasal mucosa. J Allergy Clin Immunol., 2006;118(2):428-433. Epub 2006 Jun 6.

9. Houser S.M. - Surgical treatment for empty nose syndrome. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg., 2007;133(9):858-863.

10. Elad D., Naftali S., Rosenfeld M., Wolf M. - Physical stresses at the air-wall interface of the human nasal cavity during breathing. J Appl Physiol (1985), 2006;100(3):1003-1010. Epub 2005 Nov 3.

11. Lindemann J., Keck T., Wiesmiller K.M., Rettinger G., Brambs H.J., Pless D. - Numerical simulation of intranasal air flow and temperature after resection of the turbinates. Rhinology, 2005;43(1):24-28.

12. Baraniuk J.N. - Subjective nasal fullness and objective congestion. Proc Am Thorac Soc., 2011;8(1):62-69. doi:

13. Naftali S., Rosenfeld M., Wolf M., Elad D. - The air - conditioning capacity of human nose. Ann Biomed Eng., 2005;33:545-553.

14. Piccirillo J.F., Merritt M.G. Jr, Richards M.L. - Psychometric and clinimetric validity of the 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg., 2002;126(1):41-47.

15. Jang Y.J., Kim J.H., Song H.Y. - Empty nose syndrome: radiologic findings and treatment outcomes of endonasal microplasty using cartilage implants. Laryngoscope, 2011;121(6):1308-1312. doi:

16. Eccles R., Morris S., Tolley N.S. - The effects of nasal anaesthesia upon nasal sensation of airflow. Acta Otolaryngol., 1988;106(1-2):152-155.

17. Houser S.M. - Empty nose syndrome associated with middle turbinate resection. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg., 2006;135(6):972-973.

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 408 265 19
PDF Downloads 395 340 153