Background and Aims. Risk score questionnaires for the screening of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) present high accuracy, especially the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC). The aim of the study was to assess the FINDRISC score and its correlations with multiple markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic urban population.
Material and Methods. In the current prospective study, 111 randomized asymptomatic subjects, aged 35-75, were evaluated. FINDRISC score, the cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile were evaluated. Multiple markers of subclinical atherosclerosis were assessed including carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI).
Results. Mean age was 51.87 ± 10.64 years while FINDRISC score was 10.53 ± 4.53. 77% of the subjects were overweight and all parameters of obesity were well associated with FINDRISC score (p<0.001). This asymptomatic population was dyslipidemic (total cholesterol 212.79±44.99 mg/dl). DM risk correlated with age, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and glomerular filtration rate. Increased FINDRISC was associated with IMT (r=0.24, p=0.01), PWV (r=0.26, p=0.008) or LVMI (r=0.23, p=0.01).
Conclusions. This asymptomatic population was metabolically uncontrolled. Easily administered type 2 DM screening questionnaires should be routinely performed as increased risk score values are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. International Diabetes Federation. The global picture. IDF Diabetes Atlas 7th edn 2015 Brussels Belgium.
2. Moța M Popa SG Moța E et al. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in the adult Romanian population: PREDATORR study. J Diabetes Apr 7 2015 [Epub ahead of print].
3. Salinero-Fort MÁ de Burgos-Lunar C Mostaza Prieto J et al. Validating prediction scales of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain: the SPREDIA-2 population-based prospective cohort study protocol. BMJ Open 28;5: e007195 2015.
4. Son JW Jang EH Kim MK et al. Diabetic retinopathy is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 91: 253-259 2011.
5. Shah PK. Screening asymptomatic subjects for subclinical atherosclerosis: can we does it matter and should we? J Am Coll Cardiol 56: 98-105 2010.
6. Lindström J Tuomilehto J. The diabetes risk score: a practical tool to predict type 2 diabetes risk. Diabetes Care 26: 725-731 2003.
7. Perk J De Backer G Gohlke H et al. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). Eur Heart J 33: 1635-1701 2012.
8. Touboul PJ Hennerici MG Meairs S et al. Mannheim carotid intima-media thickness and plaque consensus (2004-2006-2011). Cerebrovasc Dis 34: 290-296 2012.
9. Ko SH Bandyk DF. Interpretation and significance of ankle-brachial systolic pressure index. Semin Vasc Surg 26: 86-94 2013.
10. Mancia G Fagard R Narkiewicz K et al. 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J 34: 2159-2219 2013.
11. Van Bortel LM Laurent S Boutouyrie P et al. Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. J Hypertens 30: 445-448 2012.
12. Lin JW Chang YC Li HY et al. Cross-sectional validation of diabetes risk scores for predicting diabetes metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in Taiwanese. Diabetes Care 32: 2294-2296 2009.
13. Rydén L Grant PJ Anker SD et al. ESC Guidelines on diabetes pre-diabetes and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD. Eur Heart J 34: 3035-3087 2013.
14. Naghavi M Falk E Hecht HS Shah PK; SHAPE Task Force. The first SHAPE (Screening for Heart Attack Prevention and Education) guideline. Crit Pathw Cardiol 5: 187-190 2006.
15. Pischon T Boeing H Hoffmann K et al. General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. N Engl J Med 359: 2105-2120 2008.
16. Vazquez G Duval S Jacobs DR Jr Silventoinen K. Comparison of body mass index waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in predicting incident diabetes: a meta-analysis. Epidemiol Rev 29: 115-128 2007.
17. Ding D Chong S Jalaludin B Comino E Bauman AE. Risk factors of incident type 2-diabetes mellitus over a 3-year follow-up: Results from a large Australian sample. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 108: 306-315 2015.
18. Willi C Bodenmann P Ghali WA Faris PD Cornuz J. Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 298: 2654-2664 2007.
19. Wedisinghe L Perera M. Diabetes and the menopause. Maturitas 63: 200-203 2009.
20. Hunt KJ Williams K Rivera D et al. Elevated carotid artery intima-media thickness levels in individuals who subsequently develop type 2 diabetes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23: 1845-1850 2003.
21. Lenkey Z Illyés M Böcskei R et al. Comparison of arterial stiffness parameters in patients with coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus using Arteriograph. Physiol Res 63: 429-437 2014.
22. Taylor HA Penman AD Han H et al. Left ventricular architecture and survival in African-Americans free of coronary heart disease (from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities [ARIC] study). Am J Cardiol 99: 1413-1420 2007.