Retrospective Serological Evidence of High Exposure of Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasite Toxoplasma Gondii in The Latvian Population

Open access

Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is an important infection caused by the single-celled parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which is a zoonotic parasite causing widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving the central nervous system. Humans can acquire toxoplasmosis by ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing T. gondii tissue cysts, ingestion of oocysts shed by infected felids via contaminated food or water, and by vertical transmission to the fetus through the placenta from the mother during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of specific anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using a large set of clinical diagnostic laboratory data obtained over a 14-year period. In total, 25 069 unique patients were included in the present study. The overall specific anti-T. gondii IgG prevalence were 36.3%, which was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than IgM prevalence (2.4%). Mean age for IgG antibody-positive patients was 33.7 ± 12.2 years. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.99; p < 0.01) was observed between age group and anti-T. gondii IgG antibody prevalence, which ranged from 4.2% to 66.7%. The most prevalent (69.9%; 95% CI 69.2–70.7) comorbidities of patients tested for presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were classified as factors affecting health status which includes also monitoring of normal pregnancy.

Anonymous (2014). Multicriteria-based ranking for risk management of food-borne parasites. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meeting, 3–7 September 2012, FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization. 287 pp.

Anonymous (2016). Annual Epidemiological Report 2016 – Toxoplasmosis. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Available at: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/congenital-toxoplasmosis-annual-epidemiological-report-2016-2014-data#no-link (accessed 27.10.2018).

Anonymous (2018a). Epidemiology bulletins of Infectious diseases [Epidemioloģijas biļeteni]. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of Latvia (in Latvian). Available from: https://www.spkc.gov.lv/lv/statistika-un-petijumi/infekcijas-slimibas/epidemiologijas-bileteni1 (accessed at 25.10.2018).

Anonymous (2018b). International Classification of Diseases 11. World Health organization. Available from: https://icd.who.int (accessed at 25.10.2018).

Berger, F., Goulet, V., Le Strat, Y., Desenclos, J. C. (2009). Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in France: Risk factors and change of prevalence between 1995 and 2003. Revue d’epidemiologie et de sante publique, 57, 241–248.

Bessieres, M. H., Roques, C., Berrebi, A., Barre, V., Cazaux, M., Seguela, J. P. (1992). IgA antibody response during acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis. J. Clin. Pathol., 45, 605–608.

Bouwknegt, M., Devleesschauwer, B., Graham, H., Robertson, L. J., van der Giessen, J. W. (2018). Prioritisation of food-borne parasites in Europe, 2016. Eurosurveillance, 23, 9.

Bremer, V., Bocter, N., Rehmet, S., Klein, G., Breuer, T., Ammon, A. (2005). Consumption, knowledge, and handling of raw meat: A representative cross-sectional survey in Germany, March 2001. J. Food Prot., 68, 785–789.

Cook, A. J. C., Holliman, R., Gilbert, R. E., Buffolano, W., Zufferey, J., Petersen, E., Jenum, P. A., Foulon, W., Semprini, A. E., Dunn, D. T. (2000). Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case-control study. Commentary: Congenital toxoplasmosis — further thought for food. Brit. Med. J., 321, 142–147.

Dean, A. G., Sullivan, K. M., Soe, M. M. (2015). OpenEpi: Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health. Available at: http://www.openepi.com (accessed 27.10.2018).

Deksne, G., Kirjušina, M. (2013). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Latvia. J. Parasitol., 99, 44–47.

Deksne, G., Ligere, B., Šneidere, A., Jokelainen, P. (2017). Seroprevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Lat-via: Latvian dark headed sheep breed associated with higher seroprevalence. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis., 17, 478–482.

Deksne, G., Petrusēviča, A., Kirjušina, M. (2013). Seroprevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats from urban areas in Latvia. J. Parasitol., 99, 48–50.

Dubey, J. P. (2010). Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Humans. 2nd edition. CRC Press, Maryland. 336 pp.

Ertug, S., Okyay, P., Turkmen, M., Yuksel, H. (2005). Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Aydin province, Turkey. BMC Publ. Health, 5, 66.

Foroutan-Rad, M., Majidiani, H., Dalvand, S., Daryani, A., Kooti, W., Saki, J., Hedayati-Rad, F., Ahmadpour, E. (2016). Toxoplasmosis in blood donors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Transfus Med Rev., 30, 116–122.

Gras, L., Gilbert, R. E., Wallon, M., Peyron, F., Cortina-Borja, M. (2004). Duration of the IgM response in women acquiring Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy: Implications for clinical practice and cross-sectional incidence studies. Epidemiol. Infect., 132, 541–548.

Guigue, N., Léon, L., Hamane, S., Gits-Muselli, M., Le Strat, Y., Alanio, A., Bretagne, S. (2018). Continuous decline of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in hospital: A 1997–2014 longitudinal study in Paris, France. Front. Microbiol., 9, 2369.

Hofhuis, A., van Pelt, W., van Duynhoven, Y. T., Nijhuis, C. D., Mollema, L., van der Klis, F. R., Havelaar, A. H., Kortbeek, L. M. (2011). Decreased prevalence and age-specific risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in The Netherlands between 1995/1996 and 2006/2007. Epidemiol. Infect., 139, 530–538.

Janse, J. J., Wong, G. W., Potts, J., Ogorodova, L. M., Fedorova, O. S., Mahesh, P. A., Sakellariou, A., Papadopoulos, N. G., Knulst, A. C., Versteeg, S. A., Kroes, A. C. M. Vossen, A. C. T. M., Ponce, M. C., Kummeling, I., van Ree, P. B.R., Yazdanbakhsh, M. (2014). The association between foodborne and orofecal pathogens and allergic sensitisation – EuroPrevall study. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol., 25, 250–256.

Kortbeek, L. M., De Melker, H. E., Veldhuijzen, I. K., Conyn-Van Spaendonck, M. A. E. (2004). Population-based Toxoplasma seroprevalence study in The Netherlands. Epidemiol. Infect., 132, 839–845.

Lassen, B., Janson, M., Viltrop, A., Neare, K., Hütt, P., Golovljova, I., Tummeleht, L., Jokelainen, P. (2016). Serological evidence of exposure to globally relevant zoonotic parasites in the Estonian population. PloS One, 11, e0164142.

Luft, B. J., Remington, J. S. (1992). Toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS. Clin. Infect. Dis., 15, 211–222.

Lykins, J., Wang, K., Wheeler, K., Clouser, F., Dixon, A., El Bissati, K., Zhou, Y., Lyttle, C., Rzhetsky, A., McLeod, R. (2016). Understanding toxoplasmosis in the United States through “Large Data” Analyses. Clin. Infect. Dis., 63, 468–475.

Nowakowska, D., Stray-Pedersen, B., Śpiewak, E., Sobala, W., Małafiej, E., Wilczyński, J. (2006). Prevalence and estimated incidence of Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Poland: A decreasing trend in the younger population. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 12, 913–917.

Pappas, G., Roussos, N., Falagas, M. E. (2009). Toxoplasmosis snapshots: Global status of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and implications for pregnancy and congenital toxoplasmosis. Int. J. Parasitol., 39, 1385–1394.

Robert-Gangneux, F., Dardé, M. L. (2012). Epidemiology of and diagnostic strategies for toxoplasmosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 25, 264–296.

Sonar, S. S., Brahmbhatt, M. N. (2010). Toxoplasmosis: An important protozoan zoonosis. Vet. World, 3, 436.

Tenter, A. M., Heckeroth, A. R., Weiss, L. M. (2000). Toxoplasma gondii: From animals to humans. Int. J. Parasit., 30, 1217–1258.

Torgerson, P. R. (2013). One world health: Socioeconomic burden and parasitic disease control priorities. Vet. Parasitol., 195, 223–232.

Wilking, H., Thamm, M., Stark, K., Aebischer, T., Seeber, F. (2016). Prevalence, incidence estimations, and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Germany: A representative, cross-sectional, serological study. Sci. Rep., 6, 22551.

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.22

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.127
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.211

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 122 122 38
PDF Downloads 95 95 28