Diagnostics and Treatment of Neonatal Necrotising Enterocolitis in Latvia

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Abstract

Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity, mortality and surgical emergencies. As the survival rate of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants is rising, so is the risk of NEC. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostics parameters like clinical and radiological findings and laboratory indicators and the treatment and outcome of NEC patients from 2000 till 2007 (Group 1) and from 2008 till 2016 (Group 2) treated in Neonatology Clinic (NC) of Children’s Clinical University Hospital (CCUH). In the rectrospective study, 277 newborns were divided among Group I and Group II – 105 and 172 patients, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between both study groups in mean gestational age and birth weight. In both groups the first signs of NEC appeared on average eight days after birth. Differences in the diagnostic method used in both groups were not statistically significant; specific radiological findings were seen in approximately 1/3 of the cases. There were statistically significant differences in the management of NEC and patient mortality. Conservative therapy was applied in 70.0% of patients in both study groups. Over time, peritoneal drainage (PPD) as the sole surgical treatment decreased by 6.4%, but PPD with following enterostomy decreased by 8.9%. In Group 2 mortality of NEC patients decreased by 17.4%. Mortality among surgically treated NEC patients decreased as well, by 9.0%.

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