Establishment of Nuclear Stock Collections for Apple and Pear in Latvia

Neda Zuļģe 1 , Anna Kāle 1 , Alina Gospodaryk 2 , 3 , Kristīne Vēvere 1  and Inga Moročko-Bičevska 1
  • 1 Institute of Horticulture, Latvia University of Agriculture, Graudu iela 1, Ceriņi, Krimūnu pagasts, Dobeles novads, LV-3701, , Latvia
  • 2 Institute of Horticulture, Latvia University of Agriculture, Graudu iela 1, Ceriņi, Krimūnu pagasts, Dobeles novads, LV-3701, , Latvia
  • 3 Educational and Scientific Centre, Institute of Biology and Medicine, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64 Volodymyrska Street, , Kiev, Ukraine

Abstract

Apples and pears are among the most important commercial fruit species grown in Latvia. Because of suitability to local climatic conditions, mainly domestic cultivars and cultivars originating in neighbouring countries are grown. The planting material of pome fruits produced and used for establishment of new orchards in Latvia corresponds to the Conformitas Agraria Communitatis standard due to the unavailability of nuclear stock. To establish virus-tested, experimental nuclear stock for apple and pear, one to two years old candidate plants were exposed to thermotherapy at +38 °C for 40 to 70 days. The mother trees and candidate plants before treatment were tested for the presence of the four most widespread pome fruit viruses by RT-PCR. The shoot tips of the heat-treated plants were grafted onto seedling rootstocks and were re-tested for the four viruses by RT-PCR during the next three to five vegetation seasons. Several plants of apple cultivars ‘Dace’, ‘Zarja Alatau’, ‘Rubin’, and ‘Ausma’ remained infected either with Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Apple stem growing virus or Apple stem pitting virus after the thermotherapy. Tests on woody indicators were carried out to determine possible presence of graft-transmittable organisms according to EPPO guidelines for the establishment of nuclear stock material for pome fruits.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Anonymous (1992a). Certification scheme. Virus-free or virus-tested fruit trees and rootstocks. Testing methods for viruses of fruit trees present in the EPPO region. EPPO Bulletin, 22, 265-275.

  • Anonymous (1992b). Council Directive 92/34/EEC on the marketing of fruit plant propagating material and fruit plants intended for fruit production. Available at: http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/eur18958.pdf (accessed 21 September 2016)

  • Anonymous (1999). Certification scheme. Pathogen-tested material of Malus, Pyrus and Cydonia. EPPO Bulletin, 29, 239-252.

  • Campbell, A. I., Best, M. W. (1964). The effect of heat therapy on several apple viruses. In: Annual Report Long Ashton Agricultural Horticultural Research Station 1963-1964. Long Ashton Research Station, Bristol, pp. 65-70.

  • Cembali, T., Folwell, R. J., Wandschneider, P., Eastwell, K. C., Howell W. E. (2003). Economic implications of a virus prevention program in deciduous tree fruits in the US. Crop Protection, 22 (10), 1149-1156.

  • Cieslinska, M., Zawadzka, B. (1999). Preliminary results of investigation on elimination of viruses from apple, pear and raspberry using thermotherapy and chemotherapy in vitro. Phytopathol. Pol., 17, 41-48.

  • Cropley, R. (1968). Comparison of some apple latent viruses. Ann. Appl. Biol., 61, 361-372.

  • Deng, X. Y., Hong, N., Hu, H. J., Wang, G. P. (2004). Detection of latent viruses in Pyrus pyrifolia by IC-RT-PCR and TC-RT-PCR. J. Fruit Sci., 21, 569-572.

  • Desvignes, J. C. (1999). Virus Diseases of Fruit Trees. Centre Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Legumes, Paris. p. 202.

  • Fridlung, P. R. (Ed.) (1989). Virus and Viruslike Diseases of Pome Fruits and Simulating Noninfectious Disorders. Cooperative Extension College of Agriculture and Home Economics Washington State University Pullman, Washington. 330 pp.

  • Gugerli, P., Ramel, M. E. (2003). Production of monoclonal antibodies for the serological identification and reliable detection of apple stem pitting and pear yellow vein viruses in apple and pear. Acta Hortic., 657, 59-69.

  • Howell, W. E., Burgess, J., Mink, G. I., Skrzeczkowski, L. J., Zhang, Y. P. (1998). Elimination of apple fruit and bark deforming agents by heat therapy. Acta Hortic., 472, 641-646.

  • Jelkmann, W. (2001). International working group on fruit tree viruses. Acta Hortic., 550, 473-493.

  • Kaufmane, E., Skrīvele, M., Rubauskis, E., Strautiņa, S., Ikase, L., Lācis, G., Segliāņa, D., Moročko-Bičevska, I., Ruisa, S., Priekule, I. (2013). Development of fruit science in Latvia. Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Section B, 67 (2), 71-83.

  • Kilevica, M., Svarcbahs, J., Ко tans, G. (1976). Latent virus infections of apple and introduction of the system for growing healthy virus free plant¬ing material [Килевиц, M., Шварцбах, Я., Котанс, Г. Скрытая вирусная инфекция яблони и обоснование системы выращивания оздоровлен¬ного посадочного материала]. Proceedings of Lancia Academy of Agri¬culture [Труды Латвийской Сельскохозяйственной академии], 100, 26-31 (in Russian).

  • Kirby, M. J., Guise, C. M., Adams A. N. (2001). Comparison of bioassays and laboratory assays for Apple stem grooving virus. J. Virol. Meth., 93 (1-2), 167-173.

  • Knapp, E., Hanzer, V., Weiss, H. H., Da Camara Machado, A., Weiss, B., Wang, Q., Katinger, H., Da Camara Machado, M. L. (1995). New aspects of virus elimination in fruit trees. Acta Hortic., 386, 409-418.

  • Laimer, M., Barba, M. (2011). Elimination of systemic pathogens by thermotherapy, tissue culture, or in vitro micrografting. In: Hadidi, A., Barba, M., Candresse, T., Jelkmann, W. (eds.). Virus and Virus-Like Diseases of Pome and Stone Fruits. APS Press, St. Paul, pp. 389-393.

  • Lenz, F., Lankes, C. (2006). Certification scheme for fruit trees in Germany. Latvian J. Agron., 9, 69-74.

  • Leonhardt, W., Wawrosch, C., Auer, A., Kopp, B. (1998). Monitoring of virus diseases in Austrian grapevine varieties and virus elimination using in vitro thermotherapy. Plant Cell Tiss. Org., 52, 71-74.

  • MacKenzie, D. J., McLean, M. A., Mukerji, S., Green, M. (1997). Improved RNA extraction from woody plants for the detection of viral pathogens by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Plant Dis., 81, 222-226.

  • Maxim, A., Zagrai, L., Zagrai, I., Isac, M. (2004). Studies on the influence of apple stem grooving virus on tree growth of various apple cultivars in the nursery. Acta Hortic., 657, 41-44.

  • Menzel, W., Jelkmann, W., Maiss, E. (2002). Detection of four apple viruses by multiplex RT-PCR assays with coamplification of plant mRNA as internal control. J. Virol. Meth., 99, 81-92.

  • Mink, G. I., Wample, R., Howell, W. E. (1998). Heat treatment of perennial plants to eliminate phytoplasmas, viruses, and viroids while maintaining plant survival. In: Hadidi, A., Khetarpal, R. K., Koganezawa, H. (eds.). Plant Virus Disease Control. APS Press, St. Paul, pp. 332-345.

  • Ostry, M. E., Hackett,W., Michler, C., Serres, R., McCown, B. (1994). Influence of regeneration method and tissue source on the frequency of somatic variation in Populus to infection by Septoria musiva. Plant Sci., 97, 5222-5226.

  • Panattoni, A., Luvisi, A., Triolo, E. (2013). Review. Elimination of viruses in plants: Twenty years of progress. Spanish J. Agricult. Res., 11 (1), 173-188.

  • Paprstein, F., Sedlak, J., Polak J., Svobodova, L., Hasssan, M., Bryxiova, M. (2008). Results of in vitro thermotherapy of apple cultivars. Plant Cell Tiss. Organ. Cult., 94, 347-352.

  • Posnette, A. F., Cropley, R. (1956). Apple mosaic viruses. Host reaction and strain interference. J. Hortic. Sci., 31, 119-133.

  • Pupola, N., Morocko-Bicevska, I., Kale, A., Zeltins, A. (2011). Occurrence and diversity of pome fruit viruses in apple and pear orchards in Latvia. J. Phytopathol., 159, 597-605.

  • Rani, V., Parida, A., Raina, S. N. (1995) Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers for genetic analysis in micropropagated plants of Populus deltoides Marsh. Plant Cell Rep., 14, 459-462.

  • Reed, P. J., Foster, J. A. (2011). Exclusion of pome and stone fruit viruses, viroids, and phytoplasmas by certification and quarantine. In: Hadidi, A., Barba, M., Candresse, T., Jelkmann, W. (eds.). Virus and Virus-Like Diseases of Pome and Stone Fruits. APS Press, St. Paul, pp. 382-388.

  • Rowhani, A., Uyemoto, J. K., Golino, D. A., Martelli, G. P. (2005). Pathogen testing and certification of Vitis and Prunus species. Annu. Rev. hytopathol., 43, 261-278.

  • Skrivele, M., Kaufmane, E. (2015). The development of fruit-growing industry and science in Latvia [Skrîvele, M., Kaufmane, E. Augïkopîbas nozares un zinâtnes attîstîba Latvijâ]. In: Ikase, L. (Ed.). The fruit-growing [Augïkopîba]. LV Augïkopîbas institûts, Dobele, pp. 17-24 (in Latvian).

  • Skrivele, M., Kaufmane, E., Strautina, S., Ikase, L., Ruisa, S., Rubauskis, E., Blukmanis, M., Seglina, D. (2008). Fruit and berry growing in Latvia. In: Proceedings of International Scientific Conference “Sustainable Fruit Growing: From Plant to Product”, 28-31 May 2008, Jûrmala - Dobele. Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing, Dobele, pp. 5-14.

  • Stein, A., Spiegel, S., Faingersh, G., Levis, S. (1991). Responses of micropropagated peach cultivars to thermotherapy for the elimination of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus. Ann. Appl. Biol., 119, 265-271.

  • Sutic, D. D, Ford, E. R., Tosic, M. T. (1999). Virus diseases of fruit trees. In: Sulzycki, J. (Ed.). Handbook of Plant Virus Diseases. CRC Press LC, Boca Raton, pp. 321-389.

  • Svarcbahs J., Kilevica M., Miltins G. (1977). Heat treatment of apple trees infected with viruses [Шварцбах, Я., Килевица, M., Милтынын, Г. Применение термотерапии в оздоовлении зараженных вирусами деревьев яблони]. Proceedings of Latvia Academy of Agriculture [Труды Латвийской Сельскохозяйственной академии], 153, 26-34 (in Russian).

  • Thompson, D., Howeel, W. E., Kolber, M. (2011). Biological indexing. In: Hadidi, A., Barba, M., Candresse, T., Jelkmann, W. (eds.). Virus and Virus- Like Diseases of Pome and Stone Fruits. APS Press, St. Paul, pp. 299-302.

  • Van den Berg, A. (2003). Certified nursery tree production in Holland. The Compact Fruit Tree, 36 (2), 43-45.

  • Wang, L., Wang, G., Hong, N., Tang, R., Deng, X., Zhang, H. (2006). Effect of thermotherapy on elimination of apple stem grooving virus and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus for in vitro-cultured pear shoot tips. HortScience, 41 (3), 729-732.

  • Waterworth, H. E., Hadidi, A. (2005). Economic losses due to plant viruses. In: Hadidi, A., Khetarpal, R. K., Koganezawa, H. (eds.). Plant Virus Disease Control. APS Press, St. Paul, pp. 1-15.

  • Welsh, M. F., Nyland, G. (1965). Elimination and separation of viruses in apple clones by exposure to dry heat. Can. J. Plant Sci., 45 (5), 443-454.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search