The paper presents information on pneumonia (P) patients with features of oxidative stress (OS). Identifying features of OS in patients with P is of interest not only for diagnosis, but also for monitoring of treatment efficiency. We recruited 73 patients with community-acquired P (CAP), previously healthy adults, both males and females with mean age of 68.0 ± 15.2, hospitalised, and 61 healthy control patients matched for age. For quantitative evaluation of lipid peroxidation in CAP patients, the levels of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4- hydroxynon-2-enal (HNE) were quantified. Furthermore, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and several antioxidant enzymes and selenium in plasma were determined. In CAP patients, decreased levels of GSH and plasma selenium were observed. Plasma levels of MDA, and HNE did significantly differ between patient and control groups. We also noted reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely, glutation peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Low antioxidant enzymes activity was associated with a more severe CAP pattern. Both GSH and antioxidant enzymes may serve as markers for inflammation-related OS in CAP patients, and measurement of these biomarkers may be a valid indentifier for its management.
Alfthan, G. (1984). A micromethod for the determination of selenium in tissues and biological fluids by single-test-tube fluorimetry. Anal. Chim. Acta, 165, 187-194.
Barnes, P. (1990). Reactive oxygen species and airway inflammation. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 9, 235-243.
Beutler, E., Duron, O., Kelley, B. M. (1963). Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 61, 882-888.
Brigelius-Flohe, R., Maiorino, M. (2013). Glutathione peroxidases. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1830 (5), 3289-3303.
Cantin, A., Hubbard, R., Crystal, S. (1989). Glutathione deficiency in the epithelial lining fluid of the lower respiratory tract in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Amer. Rev. Respir. Dis., 139 (2), 370-372.
Castillo, R. L., Carrasco, R. A., Álvarez, P. I., Ruiz, M., Luchsinger, V., Zunino, E., Martínez, M. A., Avendaño, L. F. (2013). Relationship between severity of adult community acquired pneumonia and impairment of the antioxidant defense system. Biol. Res., 46 (2), 207-213.
Dalle-Donne, I., Rossi, R., Colombo, R., Giustarini, D., Milzani, A. (2006). Biomarkers of oxidative damage in human disease. Clin. Chem., 52 (4), 601-623.
Day, B. J. (2005). Glutathione: A radical treatment for cystic fibrosis lung disease. Chest, 127 (1), 12-14.
Esterbauer, H., Cheesman K. (1990). Determination of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products: malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Methods Enzymol., 186, 407-421.
File, T. (2003). Community-acquired pneumonia. Lancet, 362, 1991-2001.
Fine, M., Auble, T., Yealy, D., Hanusa, B., Weissfeld, L., Singer, D., Coley, C., Marrie, T., Kapoor, W. (1997). A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. New Engl. J. Med., 336 (4), 243-250.
Frei, C., Attridge, R., Mortensen, E., Restrepo, M., Yu, Y., Oramasionwu, C., Ruiz, J., Burgess, D. (2010). Guideline-concordant antibiotic use and survival among patients with community-acquired pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit. Clin. Ther., 32 (2), 293-299.
Groleau, J., Dussault, S., Haddad, P., Turgeon, J., Menard, C., Chan, J., Rivard, A. (2010). Essential role of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase for ischemia-induced neovascularization via modulation of bone marrowderived endothelial progenitor cells. Arterioscler. Thromb Vasc. Biol., 30, 2173-2181.
Kelly, F. (1999). Gluthathione: in defence of the lung. Food Chem Toxicol, 37, 963-966.
Nickler, M., Schaffner, D., Christ-Crain, M., Ottiger, M., Thomann, R., Hoess, C., Henzen, C., Mueller, B., Schuetz, P. (2016). Prospective evaluation of biomarkers for prediction of quality of life in community-acquired pneumonia. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med., 32 (4), 334-341.
Nathan, C., Cunningham-Bussel, A. (2013). Beyond oxidative stress: An immunologist’s guide to reactive oxygen species. Nature Rev. Immunol., 13 (5), 349-361.
Paglia, D., Valentine, W. (1967). Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 70, 158-169.
Poli, G., Schaur, R., Siems, W., Leonarduzzi, G. (2008). 4-hydroxynonenal: A membrane lipid oxidation product of medicinal interest. Med. Res. Rev., 28 (4), 569-631.
Prousky, J. (2008). The treatment of pulmonary diseases and respiratoryrelated conditions with inhaled (nebulized or aerosolized) glutathione. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 5 (1), 27-35.
Rahman, I., MacNee, W. (2000). Oxidative stress and regulation of glutathione in lung inflammation. Eur. Respir. J., 16 (3), 534-554.
Rahman, I, van Schadewijk, A., Crowther, A., Hiemstra, P., Stolk, J., MacNee, W., De Boer, W (2002). 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a specific lipid peroxidation product, is elevated in lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Amer. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 166, 490-495.
Rahman, I., Biswas, S., Kode, A. (2006). Oxidant and antioxidant balance in the airways and airway diseases. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 533 (1-3), 222-239.
Rayman, M. (2012). Selenium and human health. Lancet, 379 (9822), 1256-1268.
Schaur, R., Siems, W., Bresgen, N., Eckl, P. (2015). 4-Hydroxy-nonenal-a bioactive lipid peroxidation product. Biomolecules, 5, 2247-2337.
Taivans, I., Jurka, N., Skesters, A., Strazda, G. (2001). Cell spectrum and oxidant/anti-oxidant status of induced sputum in smokers with airway obstruction versus smokers without obstruction and nonsmokers. Eur. Respir. J., 18 (33), 92.
Ursini, F., Maiorino, M., Forman, H. (2016). Redox homeostasis: The Golden Mean of healthy living. Redox. Biol., 8, 205-215.
Voitsekhovskaia, J., Skesters, A., Orlikov, G., Silova, A., Rusakova, N., Larmane, L., Karpov, J., Ivanov, A., Maulins, E. (2007). Assessment of some oxidative stress parameters in bronchial asthma patients beyond add-on selenium supplementation. Biomed. Khim., 53 (5), 577-584.
Watson, J. (2014). Type 2 diabetes as a redox disease. The Lancet, 383 (9919), 841-843.
Welte, T., Torres, A., Nathwani, D. (2012). Clinical and economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia among adults in Europe. Thorax, 67, 71-79.
Woolliams, J., Wiener, G., Anderson, P., McMurray, C. (1983). Variation in the activities of glutathione-peroxidase and superoxide-dismutase and in the concentration of copper in the blood in various breed crosses of sheep. Res. Vet. Sci., 34, 253-256.
Wunderink, R., Waterer, G. (2014). Clinical practice. Community-acquired pneumonia. New Engl. J. Med., 370 (6), 543-551.
Yoo, M., Gu, X., Xu, X., Kim, J., Carlson, B., Patterson, A., Cai, H., Gladyshev, V., Hatfield, D. (2010). Delineating the role of glutathione peroxidase 4 in protecting cells against lipid hydroperoxide damage and in Alzheimer’s disease. Antioxid. Redox. Signal., 12, 819-827.