Monilinia Species Causing Fruit Brown Rot, Blossom and Twig Blight in Apple Orchards in Belarus

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The aim of the study was to describe the fungi of the genus Monilinia and their damages on apple trees. During 2008-2012, surveys of apple orchards in various regions of Belarus were carried out to collect infected material for isolation of pathogens in pure culture. Fungi identification has been made by features of the cultures and morphology. It was found that in Belarus, moniliosis of apple mainly is caused by Monilinia fructigena. For the first time, in Belarus the fungus Monilinia laxa on apple-tree was recorded. In orchards of Belarus, the most widespread form of apple moniliosis was brown rot. Under favourable conditions for pathogen development, harvest losses of apple due to brown rot can exceed 50%. In recent years, an increase in damage caused by the spring form of moniliosis (monilial blight) has occurred in apple orchards. Monilial blight of twigs and fruit-bearing branches was caused by M. fructigena and M. laxa fungi. The increasing trend of this form of disease was shown in orchards older than ten years.

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