Genetic profiles and diversity of Baltic spring barley material
The objectives of this study were to generate molecular passport data for identification and differentiation of Baltic spring barley accessions (cultivars, landraces and breeding lines) and to estimate the genetic variation within and among these accessions. Allelic profiles of 21 microsatellite and 8 isoenzyme loci were obtained and analysed for 64 Baltic spring barley accessions. The microsatellite data was successfully used to separate all of the accessions by individual allelic pattern and frequencies, whereas only 30 of the studied accessions could be distinguished by isozyme data. Variation was detected both among and within the accessions and was significant. The variation within accessions accounted for 20.6% and 14.3% of the total variation, based on microsatellite and isozyme data, respectively. The six-rowed and two-rowed material was well differentiated by both types of marker data: according to AMOVA this differentiation accounted for 16.9% of the microsatellite variation and 26.8% of isozyme variation. Differentiation of accessions based on the country of origin could be detected only by isozyme markers and accounted for 9% of the total izozyme variation. Both isozyme and microsatellite data showed that accessions of Latvian origin had the highest total diversity values, while material from Estonia was the least diverse.
Chaabane, R., Felah, M. E., Salah, H.B., Nauceur, M.B.B., Abdelly, C., Ramala, D., Nada, A., Saker, M. (2009). Molecular characterization of Tunisian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes using microsatellites (SSRs) markers. Eur. J. Sci. Res., 36, 6-15.
Chen, F., Chen, D., Brau V., Pilar, M., Gao, Z., Chen, X. (2009). Analysis of diversity in Chinese cultivated barley with simple sequence repeats: Differences between eco-geographic populations. Biochem. Gen., 48, 44-56.
Excoffier, L., Laval, G., Schneider, S. (2005). Arlequin ver. 3.0: An integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online, 1, 47-50.
Hvid, S., Nielsen, G. (1977). Esterase isoenzyme variants in barley. Hereditas, 87, 155-162.
Kalia, R.K., Manoj, K.-R., Kalia, S., Singh, R., Dhawan, A.K. (2011). Microsatellite markers: An overview of the recent progress in plants. Euphitica, 177, 309-334.
Koebner, R.M.D., Donini, P., Reeves, J.C., Cooke, R.J., Law, J.R. (2003). Temporal flux in the morphological and molecular diversity of UK barley. Theor. Appl. Gen., 106, 550-558.
Kolodinska Brantestam, A. (2005). A century of Breeding—is genetic erosion a reality? Temporal diversity changes in Nordic and Baltic barley. Doctoral thesis No. 2005:30. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Kolodinska Brantestam, A., von Bothmer R., Rashal, I., Weibull, J. (2003). Changes in the genetic diversity of barley of Nordic and Baltic origin, studied by isozyme electrophoresis. Plant Gen. Res.: Characterization and Utilization, 1, 143-149. Kolodinska Brantestam A., von Bothmer R., Dayteg C., Rashal I., Tuvesson
S., Weibull, J. (2007). Genetic diversity changes and relationships in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm of Nordic and Baltic areas as shown by SSR markers. Gen. Res. Crop Evol., 54, 749-758.
Lasa, J., Igartua, E. (2001). Morphological and agronomical diversity patterns in the Spanish barley core collection. Hereditas, 135, 217-225.
Liu F., von Bothmer R., Salomon, B. (1999). Genetic diversity among East Asian accessions of the barley core collection as revealed by six isozyme loci. Theor. Appl., Gen., 98, 1226-1233.
Matus, I.A., Hayes, P.M. (2002). Genetic diversity in three groups of barley germplasm assessed by simple sequence repeats. Genome, 45, 1095-1106.
Nei, M. (1973). Analysis of gene diversity insubdivided populations. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 70, 3321-3323.
Nielsen G., Johansen, H. (1986). Proposal for identification of barley varieties based on the genotypes for 2 hordein and 39 isoenzyme loci of 47 reference varieties. Euphtica, 35, 717-728.
Reeves, J.C., Chiapparino, E., Donini, P., Ganal, M., Guiard, J., Hamrit, S., Heckenberger, M., Huang, X.-Q., van Kaauwen, M., Kochieva, E., Koebner, R., Law, J.R, Lea, V., Le Clerc, V., van der Lee, T., Leigh, F., van der Linden, G., Malysheva, L., Melchinger, A.E., Orford, S., Reif, J.C., Röder, M., Schulman A., Vosman, B., van der Wiel, C., Wolf, M., Zhang, D. (2004). Changes over time in the genetic diversity of four major European crops from the Gediflux Framework 5 project. In: Proceedings of 17th EUCARPIA General Congress: Genetic variation for plant breeding (pp. 3-7). Vollmann, J., Grausgruber, H., Ruckenbauer, P. (eds.). Vienna: University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences.
Rogers, J.S. (1972). Measures of genetic similarity and genetic distance. In: Studies in Genetics. Vol. VII (pp. 145-153). Publ. 7213. Austin: University of Texas.
Rolf, M. (1998). NTSYS-pc: Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system. Version 2.1. Department of Ecology and Evolution. New York: State University of New York.
Russel, J., Ellis, R., Thomas, B., Waugh, R., Provan, J., Booth, A., Fuller, J., Lawrence, P., Young, G., Powell, W. (2000). A retrospective analysis of spring barley germplasm development from ‘foundation' genotypes’ to currently successful cultivars. Mol. Breed., 6, 553-568.
Tueryapina, R., Jensen, H.P., Rashal, I. (1996). Powdery mildew resistance genes in Baltic spring barley varieties and breeding lines. Barley Gen. Newslett., 27, 18-21.
van de Wouw, M., van Hintum, T., Kik, C., van Treuren, R., Visser, B. (2010). Genetic diversity trends in twentieth century crop cultivars: A meta analysis. Theor. Appl. Gen., 120, 1241-1252.