One of the essential characteristics of intracerebral haemorrhages (ICH) is the occurrence of brain oedema (BE). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) belongs to the family of proteolytic enzymes connected with zinc, which in brain bleeding or a stroke can induce matrix proteolyse into the neurovascular unit, and increase the BE. The aim of the study was to determine the MMP-9 values in serum, and to assess the degree of correlation with neurological deficit in patients with acute, primary and supratentorial ICH.
Materials: The study was prospective and included 62 patients with ICH. The neurological deficit of the patients was evaluated by the National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Serum MMP-9 level was determined by enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Patients were evaluated in three phases: 1st, 3rdand 7th day following the ICH.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 64.5 ± 9.4. Within the follow-up period, there was a significant rise of the NIHSS score in the first three days: 11.48 ± 3.7; 13.21 ± 3.78, and a significant rise of serum MMP-9, with greatest values in the third day: 134.7 ± 26.1 ng/ml (p = 0.000). There was a positive, significant correlation (r = 0.886, p = 0.000) between the serum MMP-9 concentration and the NIHSS score.
Conclusion: Our study showed that in the first three days of ICH, serum MMP-9 values were rising as well as the neurological deficit and the BE. Determination and evaluation of the MMP-9 in serum is an easy, non-invasive, routine laboratory procedure for the detection and follow-up of BE, and also determines further therapeutic strategy as well as prognosis in these patients.
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