Challenges of the Illiberal Democracy in Hungary. Some Aspects to the 2018 Elections

Open access

Abstract

Political transformation reached Hungary in parallel with other Central and Eastern European countries at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The core of the events, the year of 1989, the so called “annus mirabilis” when, within one year almost the entire Central and Eastern European region stepped onto the path of changes. The actors adopted Western patterns within a short period, institutions of new political systems were established, and a new political power verified and consolidated its legitimacy by free elections. As a final proof of transformation, most of former socialist bloc member states joined both the NATO and the European Union. Hungary had the chance to enter in the 21st century under radically changed and much more favourable conditions than it ever had before. This smooth transformation interrupted by political and economic crisis that finally led to the victory of the opposition that managed to repeat the next elections and implemented the Programme of National Cooperation. The aim of the paper is to analyse why the adoption of the new system enjoys wide support from different social groups and how the old fixations and obsessions persisted in society. This paper also gives a brief explanation about the nature of illiberal democracy in a wider scope and link it with the history of the Hungarian democracy, the (dis) functioning institutions, and confirms the argumentation with some statistical data explaining the correlation between the support of the government and the living standards. It investigates, if the Hungarian illiberal democratic regime interpreted as consequence of the troublesome system changes or if it is rooted in the distorted political system.

Appelbaum, (2018): A Warning from Europe: The Worst is yet to Come, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2018/10/poland-polarization/568324/

Berend, Iván (1997): Central and Eastern Europe 1944–1993, Cambridge University Press

Berend, Iván (2010): Europe since 1980, Cambridge University Press

Biro-Nagy, András (2017): Illiberal democracy in Hungary. The social background and practical steps of building an illiberal state. In: Morillas, Pol (ed.): Illiberal democracies in the EU. The Visegrad Group and the risk of disintegration. CIDOB: Barcelona,

Bogaards, Matthijs: (2018) De-democratization in Hungary: diff usely defective democracy, Democratization, 25:8,1481–1499,

Bohle, Dorothea – Gerskovits, Bela (2012): Capitalist Diversity on Europe’s Periphery, Cornell University Press

Bozóki (2012): The Transition from Liberal Democracy, http://mediationsjournal.org/articles/the-transition-from-liberal-democracy

Bozóki András – Hegedűs Dániel: A kívülről korlátozott hibrid rendszer. Politikatudományi Szemle 2017/2. 7–34.

Fareed Zakaria (1997): The Illiberal Democracy, Foreign Affairs,

Finkel, Evgeny & Brudny, Yitzhak M. (2012) No more colour! Authoritarian regimes and colour revolutions in Eurasia, Democratization, 19:1, 1–14,

Góralczyk, Bogdan (2002): Magyar törésvonalak, Helikon

Gyulai Attila – Stein-Zalai Juliane: Hibrid rezsimek és a szürke zóna: új válaszok a politikai rezsimek rendszertanának örök kérdéseire. Metszetek, 5. évf. (2016) 2. sz. 42–59

Hankiss, Elemér: (1988): Kelet-európai alternatívák, Közgazdasági és Jogi Könyvkiadó

Janos, A. C.: Haladás, hanyatlás, hegemónia Kelet-Közép-Európában, Helikon

Juhász, Attila, László, Róbert, Zgut, Edit: Consequences of an Illiberal Vision up to the Present Day https://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/budapest/12522.pdf

Kneuer, Marianne, Demmelhuber, Thomas (2017): Gravity centres of authoritarian rule: a conceptual approach, Democratization, 23.5Kornai, János (2005): Közép-Kelet-Európa nagy átalakulása: Siker és csalódás, Közgadasági Szemle, 52/12

Lengyel László (2016): Halott ország, Helikon

Lengyel László et al (2008): Merre tovább Magyarország? Reformkérdések, kérdéses reformok, Új Palatinus

Levitsky and Way (2002): Elections Without Democracy, the Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism, Journal of Democracy. 2002;13 (2)

Linz (2000): Linz, J.J.: Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes, Lynne Riennes Publishers,

Mazepus, Honorata, Veenendaal Wouter, McCarthy-Jones, Anthea & Trak Vásquez, Juan Manuel (2016) A comparative study of legitimation strategies in hybrid regimes, Policy Studies, 37:4

Németh György (2014): Képviselőválasztás 1848-ban In:http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/kepviselovalasztas_1848ban.html

Pető, Iván (2012) : Kádár élt, Kádár él... https://m.magyarnarancs.hu/belpol/kadar-elt-kadar-el-80156

Romsics, Ignác (2001): Magyarország a XX. században, Budapest, Osiris Tankönyvek

Scheppele, Kim Lane: Autocratic legalism, https://lawreview.uchicago.edu/publication/autocratic-legalism

Schmidt, Andrea (2014): The Economic Transformation in Hungary, Detour or Impasse, Politeja, 2014/28

Schmidt, Andrea (2016): The course of transition into a democratic system in Hungary In: Beata Pająk-Patkowska, Marcin Rachwał (ed.) Hungary and Poland in Times of Political Transition. Selected Issues. Poznan: Adam Mickiewicz University Press, Faculty of Political Science and Journalism

Swain et al.,(1993): Eastern Europe Since 1945. Series: The making of the modern world. Palgrave Macmillian

Szelényi, Iván (2004): Kapitalizmusok szocializmus után, Egyenlítő 2004/2

Tóth István György (2017): Turánbánya? Értékválasztások, beidegződések és az illiberalizmusra való fogadókészség Magyarországon, In: Hegymenet (Társadalmi és politikai kihívások Magyarországon), ed. Jakab, András, Urbán, László, Osiris

Tölgyessy, Péter (2017): Kompország reményei, In: Hegymenet (Társadalmi és politikai kihívások Magyarországon), ed. Jakab, András, Urbán, László, Osiris

Turbucz, Dávid: (2007): A politikai rendszer jellege a Horthy-korszak első tíz évében, MÚLTUNK – POLITIKATÖRTÉNETI FOLYÓIRAT 52:(4)

Ungváry, Rudolf (2014): A láthatatlan valóság: a fasisztoid mutáció a mai Magyarországon, Kalligram, Pozsony,

Vigvári, András (2008): Reform és rendszerváltás Magyarországon, Rubicon, 3.

Polish Political Science Review

Polski Przeglad Politologiczny

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 100 100 50
PDF Downloads 103 103 59