Religion and Religiosity: A Path to War or Peace

Open access

Abstract

The study was set to examine the differences between religion and religiosity and to explore how communities can be protected against religious violence. The study also intended to investigate the motives and the effect that religious violence has had throughout history. The study employed the qualitative research method whereby the researcher carried out a meta-analysis synthesis of different research findings to make conclusions and implications that could answer the study questions. Using the literature review they conducted, the researchers carried out data collection. As such, the researcher employed the bottom-up approach to identify the problem and the questions along with the investigation framework of what they decided to explore. The findings of the study revealed that religious backgrounds should be the cornerstone to realize the diff erence between religion and religiosity. Religion is of divine origin whereas religiosity is specifically a humanistic approach and a behavioral model. The religious violence phenomenon is formed by interlocking factors such as the interpretation of religious texts which clearly adopt thoughts and heritage full of violence camouflaged by religion. It is recommended that governments use a strong strategy employing the educational system, summits and dialogs to successfully overcome religious violence. The summits on religion should result in starting a dialog that ensures acceptance of the different religions.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abdul-Ghani I.(2017).Identity and Knowledge: Society and Religion. Beirut: Dar Vanguard.

  • Cavanaugh W. T. (2014). Religious Violence as Modern Myth. political theology 15(6) 486–502. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1179/1462317X14Z.00000000094

  • Clarke P. (2004). New Religions in Global Perspective: Religious Change in the Modern World. Routledge.

  • Duthely L. M. Nunn S. G. & Avella J. T. (2019). Spirituality and Religion as Cultural Influences in Andragogy. In Multicultural Andragogy for Transformative Learning (pp. 45–72). IGI Global.

  • Ghosh R. Chan W. A. Manuel A. & Dilimulati M. (2017). Can education counter violent religious extremism? Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 23(2) 117–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11926422.2016.1165713

  • Gravers M. (2015). Anti-Muslim Buddhist nationalism in Burma and Sri Lanka: Religious violence and globalized imaginaries of endangered identities. Contemporary Buddhism 16(1) 1–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14639947.2015.1008090

  • Gregg H. S. (2016). Th ree Theories of Religious Activism and Violence: Social Movements Fundamentalists and Apocalyptic Warriors. Terrorism and Political Violence 28(2) 338–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2014.918879

  • Iannaccone L. R. & Berman E. (2006). Religious extremism: The good the bad and the deadly. Public choice 128(1) 109–129. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11127006–9047–7?LI=true

  • Lemert C. C. (1975). Defining non-church religion. Review of Religious Research 186–197.

  • Luckmann T. (1990). Shrinking transcendence expanding religion?. Sociological analysis 51(2) 127–138.

  • Meyer C. Lohr C. Gronenborn D. & Alt K. W. (2015). The massacre mass grave of Schöneck Kilianstädten reveals new insights into collective violence in Early Neolithic Central Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(36) 11217–11222. http://www.pnas.org/content/112/36/11217.short

  • Mirahmadi H. Ziad W. Farooq M. & Lamb R. (2015). Empowering Pakistan’s civil society to counter global violent extremism. Brookings Paper.

  • Isaacs M. (2016). Sacred violence or strategic faith? Disentangling the relationship between religion and violence in armed conflict. Journal of Peace Research 53(2) 211–225. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0022343315626771

  • Purwono U. French D. C. Eisenberg N. & Christ S. (2018). Religiosity and Effortful Control as Predictors of Antisocial Behavior in Muslim Indonesian Adolescents: Moderation and Mediation Models. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.

  • Ramakrishna K. (2017). The Growth of ISIS Extremism in Southeast Asia: Its Ideological and Cognitive Features—and Possible Policy Responses. New England Journal of Public Policy 29(1) 6. http://scholarworks.umb.edu/nejpp/vol29/iss1/6

  • Rogers M. B. Loewenthal K. M. Lewis C. A. Amlôt R. Cinnirella M. & Ansari H. (2007). The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: A social psychological analysis. International Review of Psychiatry 19(3) 253–262.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540260701349399

  • Sampson I. T. (2012). Religious violence in Nigeria: Causal diagnoses and strategic recommendations to the state and religious communities. African Journal on Conflict Resolution 12(1) 103–133. https://journals.co.za/content/accordr/12/1/EJC122798

  • Sedgwick M. (2004). Al-Qaeda and the nature of religious terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence 16(4) 795 814. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546550590906098

  • Ter Haar G. (2005). Religion: source of conflict or resource for peace? Bridge or Barrier. Religion Violence and Visions for Peace Leiden: Brill 3–34.

  • Thomas S. M. (2014). Culture religion and violence: Rene Girard’s mimetic theory. Millennium 43(1) 308–327. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0305829814540856

  • Yelderman L. A. West M. P. & Miller M. K. (2019). Death penalty decision-making: Fundamentalist beliefs and the evaluation of aggravating and mitigating circumstances. Legal and Criminological Psychology 24 103-122. doi: 10.1111/lcrp.12141

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 172 172 22
PDF Downloads 124 124 15