How does one conceive time? Measurement by means of Time Metaphors Questionnaire

Open access

How does one conceive time? Measurement by means of Time Metaphors Questionnaire

Attitude towards time are usually expressed by means of metaphors. This paper presents phases of construction and validation of the Time Metaphors Questionnaire. This is a method for testing conceiving of time. An exploratory factor analyses yielded seven factor scales: Friendly Time, Hostile Time, Rapid Passage of Time, Significance of the Moment, Subtle Time, Wild Time and Empty Time. Results of correlations between scales of the Time Metaphors Questionnaire and with selected methods (Temporal Orientation Scale AION-2000, NEO-Five Factor Inventory) indicate, among other things, an ambivalence of psychological time and an importance of positive evaluation of current moment.

Abi-Hashem, N. (2000). Psychology, time, and culture. American Psychologist, 3, 342-343.

Aveni, A. (2000). Empires of time. Calendars, clocks and cultures. London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks.

Bajcar, B. (2006). Individual differences in temporal orientation - research results. In Z. Uchnast (Ed.), Psychology of time (pp. 109-132). Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL.

Barker, P. (1985). Using metaphors in psychotherapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel Publishers.

Block, R. A. (1990). Models of psychological time. In R. A. Block (Ed.), Cognitive models of psychological time (pp. 1-35). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Block, A. B., Buggie, S. E., & Matsui, F. (1996). Beliefs about time: cross-cultural comparisons. The Journal of Psychology, 130, 1, 5-22.

Boroditsky, L. (1999). Metaphoric structuring, understanding time through spatial metaphors. Cognition, 75, 1 - 28.

Boroditsky, L. (2001). Does language shape thought? : Mandarin and English speaker's conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, 43, 1-22.

Calabresi, R. & Cohen, J. (1968). Personality and time attitudes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 431-439.

Crumbaugh, J. C. (1968). Cross Validation of Purpose-in-Life Test based on Frankl's concepts. Journal of Individual Psychology, 24, 74-81.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). If we are so rich, why aren't we happy? American Psychologist, 10, 821-827.

Eysenck, H. J. (1990). Biological dimensions of personality. In: L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (pp. 244-276). New York: Guilford Press.

Fletcher, A. (1965). Allegory. The theory of symbolic mode. New York: Ithaca.

Fraisse, P. (1963). The psychology of time. New York: Harper & Row.

Frasser, T. J. (1981). Appendix. Mosaic of metaphors of time and images of transience in the literature of the West. In J. T. Frasser (Ed.), The voices of time (pp. I-IX). New York: John Day.

Glicksohn, J., & Ron-Avni, R. (1997). The relationship between preference for temporal conceptions and time estimation. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 9, 1, 1-15.

Gorman, B. S., & Wessman, A. E. (1977). Images, values, and concepts of time in psychological research. In B. S. Gorman & A. E. Wessman (Eds.), The personal experience of time (pp. 120-143). New York, London: Plenum Press.

Grygielski, M., Januszewska, E., Januszewski, A., Juros, A., & Oles, P. (1984). Meaning in life and hopelessness: Interrelationships and intergroup differences. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 15, 227-284.

Haley, J. (1986). Uncommon therapy: The psychiatric techniques of Milton H. Erickson. New York, London: W. W. Norton & Company.

Hall, E. T. (1990). The silent language. New York: Anchor Books.

Jackson, J. J., & Michon, J. A. (1992). Verisimilar and metaphorical representations of time. In F. Macar, V. Pouthas & W. J. Friedman (Eds.), Time, action and cognition: Towards bridging the gap (pp. 349-360). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Katsumata, T. (2000). Application of concept of time perspective to psychotherapy. International Journal of Psychology, 35,3 / 4, 167.

Kepner, J. I. (2001). Body process: A Gestalt approach to working with the body in psychotherapy. Cambridge: Gestalt Press.

Knapp, R. H., & Garbutt, J. T. (1958). Time imagery and the achievement motive. Journal of Personality, 26, 426 - 434.

Kurz, R. B. (1963). Relationship between time imagery and Rorschach human movement responses. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 27, 3, 273-276.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago, IL: Univer. Of Chicago Press.

Lennings, C. J., & Burns, A. M. (1998). Time perspective: temporal extension, time estimation, and impulsivity. Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary & Applied, 132, 367-381.

Lewin, K. (1942). Time perspective and morale. In G. Watson (Ed.), Civilian Morale. Second Yearbook of the S. P. S. S. L. (pp. 103-124). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Lomranz, J., Shmotkin, D., & Vardi, R. (1991). The equivocal meanings of time. Exploratory and structural analyses. Current Psychology, 10, 3-18.

Mackay, C. K., & Brown, W. P. (1970). Metaphor preference vs. Semantic ratings as measures of attitude toward time. Journal of General Psychology, 83 (2), 207-212.

Maslow, A. (1999). Toward a psychology of being. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Meade, R. D. (1971). Future time perspectives of college students in America and in India. Journal of Social Psychology, 83, 175-182.

Meerloo, J. A. M. (1966). The time sense in psychiatry. In J. T. Fraser (Ed.), The voices of time (pp. 67-90). New York: John Day.

Michon, J. A., & Jackson, J. L. (1985). Introduction: the psychology of time. In J. A. Michon & J. L. Jackson (Eds.), Time, mind, and behavior (pp. 2-17). Heidelberg: Springel Verlag.

Mooij, J. J. A. (1976). A Study of Metaphor. On the Nature of Metaphorical Expression, with Special Reference to Their Reference. Amsterdam - New York - Oxford.

Nosal, C. (2000). Czas jako wymiar regulacji zachowania. Problemy psychologii temporalnej. [Time as a dimension of behaviour control]. In J. Brzezinski & S. Kowalik (Eds.). O róznych sposobach uprawiania psychologii (pp-106-120). Poznan: zysk i S-ka.

Nosal, C. (2006). Time and age: Mental representations of time and temporal orientation of people at different periods of life. In Z. Uchnast (Ed.), Psychology of time (pp. 97-108). Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL.

Nosal, C., & Bajcar, B. (1999). Czas w umyśle stratega: perspektywa temporalna a wskaźnik zachowań strategicznych [Time perspective and an indicator of a strategic behaviour]. Czasopismo Psychologiczne, 5, (1), 55-68.

Nosal, C., & Bajcar, B. (2004). Czas psychologiczny: wymiary, struktura, konsekwencje. [Psychological time: dimensions, structure, consequences]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Instytutu Psychologii PAN.

O'Connor, J., & Seymour, J. (1990). NLP Neuroliguistic programming. San Francisco: Mandala.

Rychlak, J. F. (1972). Manifest anxiety as reflecting commitment to the psychological present at the expense of cognitive futurity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 38, 1, 70-79.

Settle, R. B., Alreck, P. L., & Glasheen, J. W. (1978). Individual time orientation and consumer life style. Advances in Consumer Research, 5, 315-319.

Sobol-Kwapinska, M. (2007). Zyć chwilα? Postawy wobec czasu a poczucie szcześcia. [Attitude to time and well-being]. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL.

Sobol-Kwapinska, M. (2008). KMC - Kwestionariusz «Metafory Czasu». Podrecznik. [Time Metaphors Questionnaire. Manual]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Sobol-Kwapinska, M. (2009). Forms of present time orientation and satisfaction with life in the context of attitudes toward past and future. Social Behavior and Personality, 37(4), 433-440.

Sobol-Kwapinska, M., & Oles, P. K. (2007). On measuring time metaphors. Psychological Reports, 100, 244-246.

Tuttle, D. B. (1997). A classification system for understanding individual differences in temporal orientation among processual researchers and organizational informants. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 13, 349-366.

Wallace, M., & Rabin, A. I. (1960). Temporal experience. Psychological Bulletin, 57, 213-236.

Watson, D., Clark, A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, (6), 1063-1070.

Wessman, A. E., & Ricks, D. F. (1966). Mood and personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Zawadzki, B., Strelau, J., Szczepaniak, P., & Sliwinska, M. (1998). Inwentarz Osobowości NEO-FFI Costy i McCrae. Podrecznik. [Polish NEO-FFI Manual]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Zdravko, R. (1995). From a metaphorical point of view. A multidisciplinary approach to the cognitive content of metaphor. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271-1288.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (2009). Paradoks czasu. [The time paradox]. Warszawa: PWN.

Polish Psychological Bulletin

The Journal of Committee for Psychological Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.33

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.185
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.258

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 173 153 8
PDF Downloads 74 69 4