This study examined the livelihood strategies and food security situation of rural households around Derba Cement Factory by taking a randomly selected sample of 215 heads of farm households from three rural kebeles. A mixed research approach was employed to triangulate concurrently collected data through household survey, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Informed by the sustainable rural livelihood framework, descriptive statistics were used to describe rural households’ livelihood strategies and challenges they faced while inferential statistics was employed to explain households’ food security situations with different livelihood combinations. While mixed farming was found to be the mainstay of the household economy, small-scale irrigation and extracting forest products were also used as supplementary economic activities. More than a half of the respondents (52.5%) reported at least one non-farm activity. Land shortage was identified as a major constraint to expand crop production and this was further aggravated by the activities (e.g. querying leading to displacement) of the Derba Cement Factory. This further affected household labor allocation and natural resources utilization. The result of household food (in) security access scale indicated that 59% of the respondents have experienced food access insecurity in 2016. However, respondents who combined agriculture and non-farm activities appeared relatively more food secure than those engaged in agriculture alone or in non-farm activity only. Overall, households with multiple livelihood strategies had diverse food entitlements to maintain sustainable food consumption. Yet, necessity induced diversification was found to affect food access security of households. This calls for inclusive policies and strategies that integrate rural non-farm activities to subsistence farming in order to assure sustainable livelihood in rural communities.
2. Asmah, E. (2011). Rural Livelihood Diversification and Agricultural Household Welfare in Ghana.” Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 3(7), pp. 325-334.
3. Barrett, C. B., Reardon, T., & Webb, P. (2001). Nonfarm Income Diversification and Household Livelihood Strategies in Rural Africa: Concepts, Dynamics and Policy Implications. Food Policy. 26(4), pp. 315-331.
4. Bazezew, A., Bewket, W., & Nicolau, M. (2013). Rural households’ livelihood assets, strategies and outcomes in drought-prone areas of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia: Case Study in Lay Gaint District. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8(46), pp. 5716-5727.
5. Benedict, A.O. (2011). The People – Food Predicament in Africa: The Quest for Food Security. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 1(19), pp. 257-268.
6. Beyene, F., Muche, M. (2010). Determinants of Food Security among Rural Households of Central Ethiopia: An Empirical Analysis. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture. 49 (4), pp. 299-318.
7. Bryceson, D. (2000). Sub-Saharan Africa Betwixt and Between: Rural Livelihood Practices and Policies. De-Agrarianisation and Rural Employment Network, pp.1-6. ASC Working Paper 43. Leiden the Netherlands.
9. Carswell, G. (2002). Livelihood Diversification: Increasing In Importance Or Increasingly Recognized. Evidence from Southern Ethiopia. Journal of International Development. 14(n), pp. 789–804.
10. Clover, J. (2003). Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Security Review. 12(1), pp. 5-14.
11. Creswell, W. J. (2003). Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Sage Publications Inc., pp. 46-55
12. CSA. (2007). National Population and Housing Census. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 400-410.
13. Degefa, T. (2002). Household Seasonal Food Insecurity in Oromiya Zone, Ethiopia: Causes, Social Science Research Report Series, No.26, OSSREA, Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, pp. 1-7.
14. Degefa, T. (2005). Combining household qualitative data and quantitative data in food security research. Working papers on population and land use in Central Ethiopia. No.5. Acta Geographica-Trondheim: Geografisk Institutt, NTNU, pp. 1-17.
15. Deitchler, M., Terri, B., & Swindale, A., Coates, J. (2010). Validation of a Measure of Household Hunger for Cross-Cultural Use. Washington, DC: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II Project (FANTA-2) FHI 360.
16. Devereux, S. (2000). Food Security in Ethiopia, pp, 1-16. IDS, University of Sussex.UK.
17. Devereux, S., Baulch, B., & Hussein K., Shoham, J., Sida H., Wilcock, D. (2004). Improving the Analysis of Food Insecurity Food Insecurity Measurement, Livelihoods Approaches and Policy: Applications in FIVIMS. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.
18. DMC. (2008). Resettlement Action Plan Summary. Establishment of 5,600 TPD Greenfield Cement Project And Operation Of Captive Mines Near Derba Village, Oromia Regional State, Federal Democratic Republic Of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
20. Endalew, B., Muche M., & Tadesse, S. (2015). Assessment of food security situation in Ethiopia: A Review. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research. 9(2), pp. 55-68.
21. FAO, WFP and IFAD. (2014). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2014: Strengthening the enabling environment for food security and nutrition. Rome: FAO.
22. FAO. (2009). Declaration of the World Summit on Food Security. World Food Summit 16-18 November 2009. Rome.
23. Gathiaka, J.K., Muriithi, M. K. (2013). An Empirical Analysis of Livelihood Strategies and Food Insecurity in Turkana County, Kenya. Presented at the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) Biannual Conference, Arusha Tanzania: AERC.
24. Gebru, W. G., Ichoku, H., & PhilEze, O. (2018). Determinants of livelihood diversification strategies in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Agriculture & Food Security. 7(62), pp. 1-9.
25. Gecho, Y., Ayele, G., & Lemma, T., Alemu, D. (2014). Rural household livelihood strategies: Options and determinants in the case of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Social sciences. 3(3), pp. 92-104.
26. Gemechu, F., Zemedu, L., & Yousuf, J. (2016). Determinants of farm household food security in Hawi Gudina district, West Hararghe zone, Oromia Regional National State, Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Development. 8(2), pp. 12-18.
27. Gesese, S., Ignatious, M. (2012). The Role of Off- And Non-Farm Activities In Achieving Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Security In Gubalfto District, North Wollo Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. 14 (5), pp. 126-143.
28. Goshu, D., Kassa, B., & Ketema, M. (2013). Measuring diet quantity and quality dimensions of food security in rural Ethiopia. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 5(5), pp. 174-185.
29. IFAD. (2011). Rural poverty report: New realities, new challenges: new opportunities for tomorrow’s generation. Rome, Italy: IFAD, pp. 15-48.
30. IFPRI. (2015). Global Nutrition Report 2015: Actions and Accountability to Advance Nutrition and Sustainable Development. Washington, DC.
31. Jemal, A., & Kyung-Ryang K. (2014). Determinants of household food security in rural Ethiopia: An Empirical Analysis. Journal of Rural Development. 37(2), pp.129-157.
32. Lavers, T. (2012). Land grab’ as development strategy? The political economy of agricultural investment in Ethiopia. The Journal of Peasant Studies. 39(1), pp.105-132.
33. Loison, S.A. (2015). Rural Livelihood Diversification In Sub-Saharan Africa: A literature review. The Journal of Development Studies. 51(9), pp. 1125-1138.
34. Matshe, I. (2009). Boosting smallholder production for food security: some approaches and evidence from studies in sub-Saharan Africa. Agrekon, 48 (4), pp. 483-511.
35. Matsumoto, T., Kijima, Y., & Yamano, T. (2006). The role of local nonfarm activities and migration in reducing poverty: evidence from Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda. Agricultural Economics. 35(3), pp. 449-458.
36. Maxwell, S., Smith, M. (1992). Household Food Security; A Conceptual Review. In, pp.2-6.
37. MoFED (Ministry of Finance and Economic Development). (2005). Ethiopia: Building on progress. A plan for accelerated and sustained development to end poverty (PASDEP). Addis Ababa: MoFED.
38. Moltedo, A., Troubat N., & Lokshin M., Sajaia Z. (2014). Analyzing Food Security Using Household Survey Data. Washington, DC: World Bank.
39. Ocho, F., Yadessa, G., & Abdissa, F. M., Bekele, A. E. (2017). Why does food insecurity persist in Ethiopia? Trends, challenges and prospects of food security in Ethiopia. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 9(12), pp. 341-354.
40. Paramitta, P. (2013). Between Chamkar and the Kitchen: A Livelihood Approach to The Implication Of Land Grabs On Food Security In Cambodian Rural Households. MA thesis, Graduate Institute of International And Development Studies, Geneva.
41. Patel, K., Gartaula, H., & Johnson, D. Karthikeyan M. (2015). The interplay between household food security and wellbeing among small-scale farmers in the context of rapid agrarian change in India. Agriculture and Food Security. 4(16), pp. 1-16.
42. Rahut, B., Ali, A., & Kassie, M., Marenya, P. P., Basnet, C. (2014). Rural Livelihood Diversification Strategies in Nepal. Policy Studies Organization Wiley Periodicals, Oxford.
43. Sasson, A. (2012). Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge. Agriculture and Food Security. 1(2), pp. 1-16.
44. Sosina, B., Barrett, C. B., & Holden, S. T. (2012). Does the nonfarm economy offer pathways for upward mobility? Evidence from a panel data study in Ethiopia. World Development. 40(8), pp. 1634–1646.
45. Stifel, D. (2010). The rural non-farm economy, livelihood strategies and household welfare. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 4 (1), pp. 82-109.
46. Sululta District Rural and Agricultural Development Office. (2014). Annual Report. Unpublished Chancho.
47. Welderufael, M. (2014). Determinants of Households Vulnerability to Food Insecurity in Ethiopia: Econometric analysis of Rural and Urban Households. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 5(24), pp. 70-79.
48. Wiggins, S., & Henri, L. (2010). Helping Africa to Feed Itself: Promoting Agriculture to Reduce Poverty and Hunger. London, UK: Overseas Development Institute, pp. 20-31.
49. Woller, G. (2009). Livelihood and Food Security Conceptual Framework. Washington Dc, pp. 4-17.
50. Yizengaw, Y. S., Okoyo, E. N., & Beyene F. (2015). Determinants of livelihood diversification strategies: The case of smallholder rural farm households in Debre Elias District, East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 10(19), pp. 1998-2013.
51. Young, H., Jaspars, S., & Brown R., Frize J., Khogali, H. (2001). Food Security Assessments in Emergencies: A Livelihood Approach. Humanitarian practice network paper. London: Overseas Development Institute, pp. 1-10.