Reading alphasyllabic hindi: contributions from phonological and orthographic domains

Open access


Phonological and orthographic processing are important cognitive skills required in reading. The present study attempts to investigate the role of phonological processing and orthographic knowledge, in reading alphasyllabic Hindi orthography. The sample constituted 65 children from Grade 4. The result of hierarchical multiple regression indicated that the variance in reading fluency was significantly explained by phonological processing and orthographic knowledge measured through the tasks of rapid automatized naming, syllable deletion and dictation. The variance in reading accuracy was significantly explained only by orthographic knowledge measured through a dictation task. Phonological short-term memory showed significant correlations with all the reading measures but was non-significant in explaining the unique variance in reading. The limitation of the study and suggestions for future research is discussed.

Agnihotri, R. K. (2013). Hindi: An essential grammar. Routledge.

Arnell, K. M., Joanisse, M. F., Klein, R. M., Busseri, M. A., & Tannock, R. (2009). Decomposing the relation between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and reading ability. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(3), 173-84.

Aro, M. (2004). Learning to read: The effect of orthography. Jyväskylän yliopisto.

Bright, W. (1996a). The Devanagari script. In P. T. Daniels & W. Bright (Eds.), The world’s writing systems (pp. 384-390). New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bright, W. (1996b). The world’s writing system. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Bright, W. (2000). A matter of typology: Alphasyllabary and Abugida. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 30, 63-71.

Caravolas, M., Lervåg, A., Mousikou, P., Efrim, C., Litavsky, M., Onochie- Quintanilla, E., … Hulme, C. (2012). Common patterns of prediction of literacy development in different alphabetic orthographies. Psychological Science, 23(6), 678-686.

Carroll, J. M. (2004). Letter knowledge precipitates phoneme segmentation, but not phoneme invariance. Journal of Research in Reading, 27(3), 212-225.

Castles, & Coltheart. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91(2003), 77-111.

Coltheart, M., Raste, K., Perry, C., Langdon, R., & Ziegler, J. (2001). DRC: A duel route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. Psychological Review, 108(1), 204-256.

Daniels, P. T. (1996). The study of writing systems. In P. T. Daniels & W. Bright (Eds.), The world’s writing systems (pp. 3-17). New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Daniels, P. T., & Bright, W. (Eds.). (1996). The world’s writing systems. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Das, T., Bapi, R. S., Padakannaya, P., & Singh, N. C. (2011). Cortical network for reading linear words in an alphasyllabary. Reading and Writing, 24(6), 697-707.

de Jong, P. F., & van der Leij, A. (1999). Specific contributions of phonological abilities to early reading acquisition: Results from a Dutch latent variable longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 450-476.

Elbro, C., & Petersen, D. K. (2004). Long-term effects of phoneme awareness and letter sound training: An intervention study with children at risk for dyslexia. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 660-670.

Furnes, B., & Samuelsson, S. (2012). Phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicting early development in reading and spelling: Results from a cross-linguistic longitudinal study. National Institute of Health Access, 21(1), 85-95.

Georgiou, G. K., Parrila, R., Cui, Y., & Papadopoulos, T. C. (2013). Why is rapid automatized naming related to reading? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115(1), 218-225.

Georgiou, G. K., Parrila, R., & Papadopoulos, T. C. (2008). Predictors of word decoding and reading fluency across languages varying in orthographic consistency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3), 566-580.

Goldrick, M., & Rapp, B. (2007). Lexical and post-lexical phonological representations in spoken production. Cognition, 102(2), 219-260.

Goswami, U. (2011). A temporal sampling framework for developmental dyslexia. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(1), 3-10.

Gupta, A. (2004). Reading difficulties of Hindi-speaking children with developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 79-99.

Gupta, A., & Jamal, G. (2006). An analysis of reading errors of dyslexic readers. Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, 17(1), 73-86.

Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. J. (2009). Developmental disorders of language, learning and cognition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Ibrahim, R. (2015). How does Rapid Automatized Naming ( RAN ) correlate with measures of reading fluency in Arabic. Psychology, 6, 269-277.

Koul, O. N. (2009). Modern Hindi grammar. Indian Institute of Language Studies.

Landerl, K., Ramus, F., Moll, K., Lyytinen, H., Leppänen, P. H. T., Lohvansuu, K., … Schulte-Körne, G. (2013). Predictors of developmental dyslexia in European orthographies with varying complexity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 54(6), 686-94.

Lindgren, S. D., Renzi, E. De, & Richman, L. C. (1985). Cross-national comparisons of developmental dyslexia in Italy and the United States. Society for Research in Child Development, 56(6), 1404-1417.

Loui, P., Kroog, K., Zuk, J., Winner, E., & Schlaug, G. (2011). Relating pitch awareness to phonemic awareness in children: implications for tone-deafness and dyslexia. Frontiers in Psychology, 2(111), 1-5.

McDougall, S., Brunswick, N., & Davies, P. de M. (2010). The development of reading skills in different orthographies. In N. Brunswick, S. McDougall, & P. de M. Davies (Eds.), Reading and dyslexia in different orthographies. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Moll, K., Ramus, F., Bartling, J., Bruder, J., Kunze, S., Neuhoff, N., … Landerl, K. (2014). Cognitive mechanisms underlying reading and spelling development in five European orthographies. Learning and Instruction, 29, 65-77.

Nag, S. (2007). Early reading in Kannada: the pace of acquisition of orthographic knowledge and phonemic awareness. Journal of Research in Reading, 30(1), 7-22.

Nag, S. (2011). The akshara languages: What do they tell us about children’s literacy learning? In R. K. Mishra & N. Srinivasan (Eds.), Language-cognition interface: state of the art (pp. 291-310). Lincom: GmbH.

Nag, S., & Perfetti, C. A. (2014). Reading and writing: Insights from the alphasyllabaries of South and Southeast Asia. Writing Systems Research, 6(1), 1-9.

Nag, S., & Sircar, S. (2008). Learning to read in Bengali: report of a survey in five Kolkata primary schools. Bangalore: The Promise Foundation.

Nag, S., & Snowling, M. J. (2011a). Cognitive profiles of poor readers of Kannada. Reading and Writing, 24(6), 657-676.

Nag, S., & Snowling, M. J. (2011b). Reading comprehension, decoding skills and oral language. English and Foreign Language, 2(2), 73-93.

Nag, S., & Snowling, M. J. (2012). Reading in an alphasyllabary: Implications for a Language Universal Theory of Learning to Read. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16(5), 404-423.

Norton, E. S., & Wolf, M. (2012). Rapid automatized naming (RAN) and reading fluency: Implications for understanding and treatment of reading disabilities. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 427-52.

Ohala, M. (1994). Experiments on the syllables in Hindi. Paper presented at Third International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 94) Yokohama, Japan (pp. 487-490). Yokohama.

Ohala, M., & Ohala, J. J. (1992). Phonetic universals and Hindi segment duration. In ICSLP 92 (pp. 831-834). Edmonton: University of Alberta.

Park, H. R., & Uno, A. (2015). Cognitive abilities underlying reading accuracy, fluency and spelling acquisition in Korean Hangul learners from grades 1 to 4: A cross-sectional study. Dyslexia, 21(3), 235-253.

Patel, T. K., Snowling, M. J., & de Jong, P. F. (2004). A cross-linguistic comparison of children learning to read in English and Dutch. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 785.

Ramus, F., Rosen, S., Dakin, S. C., Day, B. L., Castellote, J. M., White, S., & Frith, U. (2003). Theories of developmental dyslexia: insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain, 126, 841-865.

Rogers, H. (2004). The Indian Abugida and other Asian phonographic writing. In H. Rogers (Ed.), Writing systems: A linguistic approach (pp. 199-232). Blackwell Publishing.

Scheerer, E. (1986). Orthography and lexical access. In A. Gerhard (Ed.), New trends in graphemics and orthography (pp. 262-286). Berlin: Walter d Gruyter & CO.

Schneider, W., Roth, E., & Ennemoser, M. (2000). Training phonological skills and letter knowledge in children at risk for dyslexia: A comparison of three kindergarten intervention programs. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 284-295.

Seidenberg, M. S. (1985). The time course of phonological code activation in two writing systems. Cognition, 19, 1-30.

Seymour, P. H. K., Aro, M., & Erskine, J. M. (2003). Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies. British Journal of Psychology, 94, 143-74.

Shanbal, J. C., Goswami, S. P., Chaitra S, & Prathima, S. (2010). Phonological awareness skills and reading in children who are at risk for learning disability: Role in the Indian context? Journal of All India Institute of Speech & Hearing, 29(2), 204-214.

Shankweiler, D. (1999). Words to meanings. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(2), 113-127.

Shaywitz, S. E., Morris, R., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2008). The education of dyslexic children from childhood to young adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 451-475.

Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2008). Paying attention to reading: The neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Development and Psychopathology, 20(4), 1329-1349.

Siddaiah, A., & Padakannaya, P. (2015). Rapid automatized naming and reading: A review. Psychological Studies, 60(1), 70-76.

Sircar, S., & Nag, S. (2014). Akshara-syllable mapping in Bengali: A language-specific skill for reading. In H. Winskel & P. Padakannaya (Ed.), South and Southeast Asian Psycholinguistics (pp. 202-211). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Swan, D., & Goswami, U. (1997). Phonological awareness deficits in developmental dyslexia and the phonological representations hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66(1), 18-41.

Uno, A., Wydell, T. N., Haruhara, N., Kaneko, M., & Shinya, N. (2008). Relationship between reading/writing skills and cognitive abilities among Japanese primary-school children: Normal readers versus poor readers (dyslexics). Reading and Writing, 22, 755-789.

Vaessen, A., Bertrand, D., Tóth, D., Csépe, V., Faísca, L., Reis, A., & Blomert, L. (2010). Cognitive development of fluent word reading does not qualitatively differ between transparent and opaque orthographies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(4), 827-842.

Vaessen, A., Gerretsen, P., & Blomert, L. (2009). Naming problems do not reflect a second independent core deficit in dyslexia: double deficits explored. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103(2), 202-21.

Vaid, J., & Gupta, A. (2002). Exploring word recognition in a semi-alphabetic script: The case of Devanagari. Brain and Language, 81(1-3), 679-690.

Wagner, R., Balthazor, M., Hurley, S., Morgan, S., Rashotte, C., Shaner, R., … Stage, S. (1987). The nature of prereaders’ phonological processing abilities. Cognitive Development, 2(4), 355-373.

Wagner, R., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 192-212.

Wagner, R., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30(1), 73-87.

Wagner, R., Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., Hecht, S. A., Barker, T. A., Burgess, S. R., … Garon, T. (1997). Changing relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading as children develop from beginning to skilled readers: A 5-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 33(3), 468-79.

Wile, T. L., & Borowsky, R. (2004). What does rapid automatized naming measure? A new RAN task compared to naming and lexical decision. Brain and Language, 90(1-3), 47-62.

Wimmer, H., & Schurz, M. (2010). Dyslexic in regular orthographies: Manifestation and causation. Dyslexia, 16, 283-299.

Wolf, M., & Bowers, P. G. (1999). The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 415-438.

Wydell, T. N., & Butterworth, B. (1999). A case study of an English-Japanese bilingual with monolingual dyslexia. Cognition, 70(3), 273-305.

Ziegler, J. C., Bertrand, D., Tóth, D., Csépe, V., Reis, A., Faísca, L., … Blomert, L. (2010). Orthographic depth and its impact on universal predictors of reading: a cross-language investigation. Psychological Science, 21(4), 551-9.

Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: a psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 3-29.

Ziegler, J. C., Pech-Georgel, C., Dufau, S., & Grainger, J. (2010). Rapid processing of letters, digits and symbols: what purely visual-attentional deficit in developmental dyslexia? Developmental Science, 13(4), F8-F14.

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.34

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.144
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.359


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 84 84 40
PDF Downloads 56 56 26