Playing cards: spatial arrangements for observational learning

Open access

Abstract

This paper looks at how players of a card game create spatial arrangements of playing cards, and the cognitive and communicative effects of such arrangements. The data is an episode of two 8-year old children and a teacher playing the combinatorial card game Set, in the setting of the leisure-time center. The paper explores and explains how the visual resources of the game are used for externalizing information in terms of distributed cognition and epistemic actions. The paper also examines how other participants attend to the visual arrangements and self-directed talk of the active player. The argument is that externalizing information may be a strategy for reducing cognitive load for the individual problem-solver, but it is also a communicative behaviour affecting other participants and causing them to engage with the problem and the problem-solver. Seeing and hearing players who have succeeded in finding a set provide observers with rich learning opportunities, and increases their motivation to play the game. From the point of view of learning design, the consequence of this is that bystanders merit to be considered as the potential learners of a pedagogical game as much as the players themselves

Goodwin, C. (2000) Practices of seeing. In T. van Leeuwen & C. Jewitt (Eds.), Handbook of visual analysis (pp. 157-182). London: Sage.

Harvard Maare, Å. (2015). Designing for Peer Learning. Doctoral dissertation. Lund University.

Hutchins, E. (2008). Cultural practices. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society, 363, 2011-2019. doi:

Kendon, A. (1992). The negotiation of context in face-to-face interactions. In A. Duranti & C. Goodwin (Eds.), Rethinking Context: Language as an Interactive Phenomenon (pp. 323-332/337). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kirsh, D. (1995). Complementary strategies: Why we use our hands when we think. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 212-217). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kirsh, D. (2010). Thinking with external representations. AI and Society, 25, 441-454. doi:

Lupyan, G., & Swingley, D. (2011): Self-directed speech affects visual search performance. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. doi:

Steinbach-Koehler, F., & Thorne, S. L. (2011). The social life of self-directed talk: A sequential phenomenon? In J. Hall, J. Hellermann, S. Pekarek Doehler, & D. Olsher (Eds.), L2 interactional competence and development (pp. 66-92). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Streeck, J. (2011). The changing meaning of things: found objects and inscriptions in social interaction. In J. Streeck, C. Goodwin, & C. LeBaron (Eds.), Embodied interaction. language and body in the material world (pp. 67-77). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Zhang, J., & Norman, D. A. (1994). Representations in distributed cognitive tasks. Cognitive Science, 18: 87-122. doi:

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.34

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.144
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.359

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 98 98 8
PDF Downloads 75 75 9