Prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeding cows and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the endometrium of repeat breeding cows with and without subclinical endometritis

Open access

Abstract

Information on the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and its mechanism in repeat breeding cows is very limited. The aims of this study were: a) to evaluate the incidence of this disorder with cytobrush cytology b) to analyze mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in endometrial biopsy samples collected from repeat breeding cows with and without subclinical endometritis.

Two experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, 112 (12.4%) repeat breeding cows (inseminated at least 3 times and not pregnant) were selected out of 902 cows from 8 dairy herds. Cytobrush cytology was performed on these cows, using the threshold of 10% PMNs in uterine smears. The results showed that 45 out of the 112 cows (40.2%) were diagnosed as having subclinical endometritis. In experiment 2, uterine biopsy samples were taken from repeat breeding cows with subclinical endometritis (n = 10) and without this disorder (n = 10). Using reverse transcription- PCR, the mRNA expression of TNFα and iNOS was determined. A statistically significant increase in expression of both substances was measured in the group of cows with subclinical endometritis (p < 0.05).

These results provide evidence for a high prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeding cows as well as the involvement of TNFα and iNOS pathways in the regulation of this pathological condition.

Barański W, Podhalicz-Dzięgielewska M, Zduńczyk S, Janowski T (2012) The diagnosis and prevalence of subclinical endometritis in cows evaluated by different cytologic thresholds. Theriogenology 78: 1939-1947.

Barlund CS, Carruthers TD, Waldner CL, Palmer CW (2008) A comparison of diagnostic techniques for postpartum endometritis in dairy cattle. Theriogenology 69: 714-723.

Bartlett PC, Kirk JH, Mather EC (1986) Repeated insemination in Michigan Holstein-Friesian cattle: incidence, descriptive epidemiology and estimated economic impact. Theriogenology 26: 309-322.

Bondurant RH (1999) Inflammation in the bovine female reproductive tract. J Anim Sci 77: Suppl 2, 101-110.

Bonnet BN, Miller RB, Etherington WG, Martin SW, Johnson WH (1991) Endometrial biopsy in Holstein- -Friesian dairy cows. I. Technique, histological criteria and results. Can J Vet Res 55: 168-173.

Dogan I, Sonmez G, Sagirkaya H (2002) Histopathological investigation of endometrium in repeat breeder cows. Indian J Anim Sci 72: 223-226.

Dubuc J, Duffield TF, Leslie KE, Walton JS, LeBlanc SJ (2011) Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic and prostaglandin treatments for uterine health and reproductive performance in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 94: 1325-1338.

Fischer C, Drillich M, Odau S, Heuwieser W, Einspanier R, Gabler C (2010) Selected pro-inflamatory factor transcripts in bovine endometrial epithelial cells are regulated during the oestrous cycle and elevated in case of subclinical or clinical endometritis. Reprod Fertil Dev 22: 818-829.

Földi J, Kulcsa´r M, Pe´csi A, Huyghe B, de Sa C, Lohuis JA, Cox P, Huszenicza G (2006) Bacterial complications of postpartum uterine involution in cattle. Anim Reprod Sci 96: 265- 281.

Gabler C, Drillich M, Fischer C, Holder C, Heuwieser W, Einspanier R (2009) Endometrial expression of selected transcripts involved in prostaglandin synthesis in cows with endometritis. Theriogenology 71: 993-1004.

Ghasemi F, Gonzalez-Cano P, Griebel PJ, Palmer C (2012) Proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in endometrial cytobrush samples harvested from cows with and without subclinical endometritis. Theriogenology 78: 1538-1547.

Gautam G, Nakao T, Koike K, Long ST, Yusuf M, Ranasinghe RM, Hayashi A (2010) Spontaneous recovery or persistence of postpartum endometritis and risk factors for its persistence in Holstein cows. Theriogenology 73: 168-179.

Gilbert RO, Shin ST, Guard CL, Erb HN, FrajblatM(2005) Prevalence of endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of dairy cows. Theriogenology 64: 1879-1888.

Gustafsson H, Emanuelson U (2002) Charakterisation of the repeat breeding syndrome in Swedish dairy cattle. Acta Vet Scand 43: 115-125.

Haddad EK, Duclos AJ, Baines MG (1995) Early embryo loss is associated with local production of nitric oxide by decidual mononuclear cells. J Exp Med 182: 1143-1151.

Haddad EK, Duclos AJ, Lapp WS, Baines MG (1997) Early embryo loss is associated with the prior expression of macrophage activation markers in the decidua. J Immunol 158: 4886-4892.

Hartigan PJ, Murphy JA, Nunn WR, Griffin JFT (1972) An investigation into the causes of reproductive failure in dairy cows. II. Uterine infection and endometrial histopathology in clinically normal-repeat breeder cows. Irish Vet J 26: 245-247.

Herath S, Fischer DP, Werling D, Williams EJ, Lilly ST, Dobson H, Bryant CE, Sheldon IM (2006) Expression and function of Toll-like receptor 4 in the endometrial cells of the uterus. Endocrinology 147: 562-570.

Kasimanickam R, Duffield TF, Foster RA, Gartley CJ, Leslie KE, Walton JS, Johnson WH (2005) A comparison of the cytobrush and uterine lavage techniques to evaluate endometrial cytology in clinically normal postpartum dairy cows. Can Vet J 46: 255-259.

Kaufmann TB, Drillich M, Tenhagen BA, Forderung D, HeuwieserW (2009) Prevalence of bovine subclinical endometritis 4h after insemination and its effects on first service conception rate. Theriogenology 71: 385-391.

Noakes DE, Wallace L, Smith GR (1991) Bacterial flora of the uterus of cows after calving on two hygienically contrasting farms. Vet Rec 128: 440-442.

Ogando DG, Paz D, Cella M, Franchi AM (2003) The fundamental role of increased production of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-induced embryonic resorption in mice. Reproduction 125: 95-110.

Parkinson T (2009) The repeat breeder syndrome. In: Noakes DE, Parkinson TJ, England GCW (eds) Veterinary reproduction and obstetrics. 9th ed., Saunders Elsevier, Edinbourgh, pp 463-466.

Plöntzke J, Madoz LV, De la Sota RL, Drillich M, Heuwieser W (2010) Subclinical endometritis and its impact on reproductive performance in grazing dairy cattle in Argentina. Anim Reprod Sci 122: 52-57.

Salasel B, Mokhtari A, Taktaz T (2010) Prevalence, risk factors for and impact of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder dairy cows. Theriogenology 74: 1271-1278.

Schmidt-Adamapoulou B (1978) Endometritis diagnosis in the cow, comparison of clinical with the patho-histological diagnosis of uterus biopsies.. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 85: 474-477.

Seitaridis K, Tsangaris T (1973) Histological study of the endometrium of cattle with regular estrus without clinically recognizable origin. Tierarztliche Umschau 28: 553-556.

Sheldon IM, Dobson H (2004) Postpartum uterine health in cattle. Anim Reprod Sci 82/83: 295-306.

Sheldon IM, Cronin J, Goetze L, Donorfio G, Schuberth HJ (2009) Defining postpartum uterine disease and the mechanisms of infection and immunity in the female reproductive tract in cattle. Biol Reprod 81: 1025-1032.

Singh J, Murray RD, Mshelia G, Woldehiwet Z (2008) The immune status of the bovine uterus during the peripartum period. Vet J 175: 301-309.

Stolla R, de Kruif A (1999) Subfertilitat. In: Grunert E, de Kruif A (eds) Fertilitatsstorungen beim weiblichen Rind. Parey Buchverlag, Berlin, pp 293-300.

Yusuf M, Nakao T, Ranasinghe RB, Gautam G, Long ST, Yoshida C, Koike K, Hayashi A (2010) Reproductive performance of repeat breeders in dairy herds. Theriogenology 73: 1220-1229.

Zemjanis R (1980) “Repeat Breeding” or conception failure in cattle. In: Morrow DA (ed) Current Therapy in Theriogenology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 205-213

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

The Journal of Committee of Veterinary Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences and University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.697
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.773

CiteScore 2016: 0.73

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.315
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.486

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 235 230 12
PDF Downloads 106 106 11