The article reviews the history, present status and the future of BT vaccines in Europe. So far, an attenuated (modified live viruses, MLV) and inactivated virus vaccines against BT were developed and used in the field. Moreover, the virus-like particles (VLPs) produced from recombinant baculovirus, and live recombinant vaccinia or canarypox virus-vectored vaccines were tested in the laboratory. The main aims of BT vaccination strategy are: to prevent clinical disease, to reduce the spread of the BTV in the environment and to protect movement of susceptible animals between affected and free zones. Actually, all of the most recent European BT vaccination campaigns have used exclusively inactivated vaccines. The use of inactivated vaccines avoid risk associated with the use of live-attenuated vaccines, such as reversion to virulence, reassortment of genes with field strain, teratogenicity and insufficient attenuation leading to clinical disease. The mass vaccinations of all susceptible animals are the most efficient veterinary method to fight against BT and successful control of disease. The vaccination of livestock has had a major role in reducing BTV circulation and even in eradicating the virus from most areas of Europe.
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