Enzymatic antioxidant defense in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to cadmium
The aim of the study was the evaluation of cadmium effects on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat hepatocytes. The studies were conducted with isolated rat hepatocytes incubated for 1 or 2 hours in a modified (deprived of carbonates with phosphates) Williams' E medium (MWE) in the presence of cadmium chloride (25, 50 and 200 μM). Hepatocytes incubated in the MWE medium without cadmium chloride were used as a control. The application of the modified Williams' E medium allowed for the appearance of cadmium compounds in a soluble form that is indispensable for suitable estimation of its toxic action. There were evaluated markers of the oxidative stress such as: concentration of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS) - proportional to the level of lipid peroxidation, concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2), catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), selenium - dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSHR). Alterations of antioxidant enzymes activity, the level of TBARS and GSH in isolated rat hepatocytes caused by cadmium in vitro, were shown to depend on the concentration and time of exposure of cells to this metal. The increased level of TBARS and GSH was observed as well as changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The activity of SOD isoenzymes and CAT was increased, whereas GSHPx and GST were decreased. These results indicate that cadmium induces oxidative stress followed by alterations in the cellular antioxidant enzyme system in isolated rat hepatocytes.
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