Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of an 8-week endurance training program on the functional status of the respiratory muscles and breathing efficiency.
Material and methods. Thirteen healthy, untrained, male students of Physical Education volunteered to participate in the study. Before and after the subjects completed the training program, they were subjected to anthropometric and spirometric measurements, and performed an incremental stress test. The spirometric measurements included maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax), active time, passive time, and diaphragm relaxation time. Measuring PImax is a simple method of evaluating the strength of the inspiratory muscles. The 8-week training program was performed on a rowing ergometer 3 times per week, using aerobic workloads.
Results. The study did not confirm a significant improvement in the measured spirometric parameters following the training program. However, we observed a trend of increase in PImax values by 12 ± 21% of borderline after the training program and a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between the changes in PImax and those in VO2 max. Following the training there was also a significant reduction in the amount of body fat by 1.4 kg and an improvement of work capacity. The response of the respiratory system to exercise was also enhanced, as breathing efficiency improved (tidal volume increased in maximal exercise, while lung ventilation, the ventilatory equivalent for oxygen, and breathing frequency decreased in submaximal exercise).
Conclusions. The findings of the study suggest that traditional endurance training which is implemented over a 8 weeks is not a sufficiently strong stimulus to cause a significant increase in the strength of the inspiratory muscles.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Jones A.M., Carter H. (2000). The effect of endurance training on parameters of aerobic fitness. Sports Medicine 29(6), 373-386.
2. Cogo A. (2014). Lung, not only heart. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine 9(1), 21. DOI: 10.1186/2049-6958-9-21.
3. Guenette J.A., Sheel A.W. (2007). Physiological consequences of a high work of breathing during heavy exercise in humans. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 10(6), 341-350. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2007.02.003.
4. Mota S., Casan P., Drobnic F., Giner J., Ruiz O., Sanchis J. et al. (1999). Expiratory flow limitation during exercise in competition cyclists. Journl of Applied Physiology 86(2), 611-616.
5. Dempsey J.A., McKenzie D.C., Haverkamp H.C., Eldridge M.W. (2008). Update in the understanding of respiratory limitations to exercise performance in fit, active adults. Chest 134(3), 613-622. DOI: 10.1378/chest.07-2730.
6. Olafsson S., Hyatt R.E. (1969). Ventilatory mechanics and expiratory flow limitation during exercise in normal subjects. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 48(3), 564-573. DOI: 10.1172/JCI106015.
7. Fuso L., Di Cosmo V., Nardecchia B., Sammarro S., Pagliari G., Pistelli R. (1996). Maximal inspiratory pressure in elite soccer players. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 36(1), 67-71.
8. Klusiewicz A., Borkowski L., Zdanowicz R., Boros P., Wesolowski S. (2008). The inspiratory muscle training in elite rowers. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 48(3), 279-284.
9. Lomax M., Grant I., Corbett J. (2011). Inspiratory muscle warm-up and inspiratory muscle training: Separate and combined effects on intermittent running to exhaustion. Journal of Sports Sciences 29(6), 563-569. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2010.543911.
10. Romer L.M., McConnell A.K., Jones D.A. (2002). Effects of inspiratory muscle training on time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Journal of Sports Sciences 20(7), 547-562. DOI: 10.1080/026404102760000053.
11. Volianitis S., Mcconnell A.K., Koutedakis Y., Mcnaughton L., Backx K., Jones D.A. (2001). Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33(5), 803-809.
12. Riganas C.S., Vrabas I.S., Christoulas K., Mandroukas K. (2008). Specific inspiratory muscle training does not improve performance or VO2 max levels in well trained rowers. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 48(3), 285-92.
13. Clanton T.L., Dixon G.F., Drake J., Gadek J.E. (1987). Effects of swim training on lung volumes and inspiratory muscle conditioning. Journal of Applied Physiology 62(1), 39-46.
14. Dunham C., Harms C.A. (2012). Effects of high-intensity interval training on pulmonary function. European Journal of Applied Physiology 112(8), 3061-3068. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-011-2285-5.
15. Armour J., Donnelly P.M., Bye P.T. (1993). The large lungs of elite swimmers: An increased alveolar number? European Respiratory Journal 6(2), 237-247.
16. Coast J.R., Clifford P.S., Henrich T.W., Stray-Gundersen J., Johnson R.L. (1990). Maximal inspiratory pressure following maximal exercise in trained and untrained subjects. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22(6), 811-815.
17. Cordain L., Tucker A., Moon D., Stager J.M. (1990). Lung volumes and maximal respiratory pressures in collegiate swimmers and runners. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 61(1), 70-74. DOI: 10.1080/02701367.1990.10607479.
19. Klusiewicz A., Zubik L., Długolecka B., Charmas M. (2014). Characteristics of the respiratory muscle strength of women and men at different training levels. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism 21(2), 82-86. DOI: 10.2478/pjst-2014-0008.
20. Mejuto G., Arratibel I., Cámara J., Puente A., Iturriaga G., Calleja-González J. (2012). The effect of a 6-week individual anaerobic threshold based programme in a traditional rowing crew. Biology of Sport 29(4), 297-301. DOI: 10.5604/20831862.1019886.
21. Seiler S. (2012). Training intensity distribution. In I. Mujika (ed.), Endurance training - science and practice (pp. 29-39). Vitoria-Gasteiz Basque Country: Inigo Mujika S.L.U.
22. Klusiewicz A. (2008). Characteristics of the inspiratory muscle strength in well trained athletes. Biology of Sport 25, 13-22.
23. Romer L.M., McConnell A.K. (2004). Inter-test reliability for non-invasive measures of respiratory muscle function in healthy humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology 91(2-3), 167-176. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-003-0984-2.
24. Wen A.S., Woo M.S., Keens T.G. (1997). How many maneuvers are required to measure maximal inspiratory pressure accurately. Chest 111(3), 802-807.
25. Hanel B., Levine B.D., Engfred K., Clifford P.S., Friedman D.B., Secher N.H. (1994). Maximal inspiratory pressure following endurance training at altitude. Ergonomics 37(1), 59-67. DOI: 10.1080/00140139408963623.
26. McConnell A.K., Caine M.P., Sharpe G.R. (1997). Inspira-tory muscle fatigue following running to volitional fatigue: The influence of baseline strength. International Journal of Sports Medicine 18(3), 169-173. DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-972614.
27. Brown P.I., Johnson M.A., Sharpe G.R. (2014). Determinants of inspiratory muscle strength in healthy humans. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 196, 50-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.resp.2014.02.014.
28. Winkler G., Zifko U., Nader A., Frank W., Zwick H., Toifl K. et al. (2000). Dose-dependent effects of inspiratory muscle training in neuromuscular disorders. Muscle & Nerve 23(8), 1257-1260.
29. Santtila M., Keijo H., Laura K., Heikki K. (2008). Changes in cardiovascular performance during an 8-week military basic training period combined with added endurance or strength training. Military Medicine 173(12), 1173-1179.
30. Howley E.T., Bassett D.R.J., Welch H.G. (1995). Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake: Review and commentary. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27(9), 1292-1301.
31. Hickson R.C., Rosenkoetter M.A. (1981). Reduced training frequencies and maintenance of increased aerobic power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 13(1), 13-16.
32. Legg S.J., Duggan A. (1996). The effects of basic training on aerobic fitness and muscular strength and endurance of British Army recruits. Ergonomics 39(12), 1403-1418. DOI: 10.1080/00140139608964560.
33. Santtila M. (2010). Effects of added endurance or strength training on cardiovascular and neuromuscular performance of conscripts during the 8-week basic training period. Doctoral thesis, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
34. Carte H., Jones A.M., Doust J.H. (1999). Effect of 6 weeks of endurance training on the lactate minimum speed. Journal of Sports Sciences 17(12), 957-967. DOI: 10.1080/026404199365353.
35. Hickson R.C., Hagberg J.M., Ehsani A.A., Holloszy J.O. (1981). Time course of the adaptive responses of aerobic power and heart rate to training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 13(1), 17-20.
36. Saunders P.U., Pyne D.B., Telford R.D., Hawley J.A. (2004). Factors affecting running economy in trained distance runners. Sports Medicine 34(7), 465-485. DOI: 10.2165/00007256-200434070-00005.
37. Williams K.R., Cavanagh P.R. (1987). Relationship between distance running mechanics, running economy, and performance. Journal of Applied Physiology 63(3), 1236-1245.
38. Griffiths L.A., McConnell A.K. (2012). The influence of rowing-related postures upon respiratory muscle pressure and flow generating capacity. European Journal of Applied Physiology 112(12), 4143-4150. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-012-2399-4.
39. Lazovic B., Mazic S., Suzic-Lazic J., Djelic M., Djordjevic-Saranovic S., Durmic T. et al. (2015). Respiratory adaptations in different types of sport. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 19(12), 2269-2274.
40. Mahler D.A., Hunter B., Lentine T., Ward J. (1991). Locomotor-respiratory coupling develops in novice female rowers with training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 23(12), 1362-1366.
41. Steinacker J.M., Both M., Whipp B.J. (1993). Pulmonary mechanics and entrainment of respiration and stroke rate during rowing. International Journal of Sports Medicine 14, 15-19.
42. Siegmund G.P., Edwards M.R., Moore K.S., Tiessen D.A., Sanderson D.J., McKenzie D.C. (1999). Ventilation and locomotion coupling in varsity male rowers. Journal of Applied Physiology 87(1), 233-242.
43. Mahler D.A., Shuhart C.R., Brew E., Stukel T.A. (1991). Ventilatory responses and entrainment of breathing during rowing. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercis 23(2), 186-192.