Relationships between Physical Fitness Components among Slovak High School Students

Open access


Introduction. The purpose of the study was to assess physical fitness based on using FITNESSGRAM test battery in Slovak high school students.

Material and methods. The reference sample consisted of 1,016 high school students from schools located in the Prešov self-governing region. Students were tested for physical fitness components using selected Fitnessgram test items. In addition, students performed 20-meter endurance shuttle run to determine their level of cardiorespiratory fitness and 10-second jumping test on a jumping ergometer to determine their lower-body explosive power.

Results. Results of one-way ANOVA showed significant differences for curl-up test (p = .012) between 15-year-old boys and 18-year-old boys. There were no differences between boys living in rural areas and their age-matched counterparts living in urban areas. Contrary to boys, girls from rural areas had higher level of abdominal strength (p = .046; d = .19). In the 20-meter endurance shuttle run, boys averaged 448.87 meters more than girls.

Conclusions. This study enables to create norm-referenced standards, which through their content will to a great extent indicate the measures of physical fitness.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Ekelund U. Anderssen S.A. Froberg K. Sardinha L.B. Andersen L.B. Brage S. (2007). Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: the European youth heart study. Diabetelogia 50(9) 1832-1840. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-007-0762-5

  • 2. Ortega F.B. Artero E.G. Ruiz J.R. Espana-Romero V. Jimenéz-Pavón D. Vicente-Rodriguez D. et al. (2011). Physical fitness levels among European adolescents: The HELENA Study. British Journal of Sports Medicine 45(1) 20-29. DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.2009.062679

  • 3. Ortega F.B. Ruiz J.R. Castillo M.J. Sjöström M. (2008). Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence a powerful marker of health. International Journal of Obesity 32(1) 1-11. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803774

  • 4. Morrow J.R. Tucker J.S. Jackson A.W. Martin S.B. Greenleaf C.A. Petrie T.A. (2013). Meeting physical activity guidelines and health-related fitness in youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 44(5) 439-444. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.01.008

  • 5. Ruiz J.R. Ortega F.B. Gutierrez A. Meusel D. Sjöström M. Castillo M.J. (2006). Health-related fitness assessment in childhood and adolescence: a European approach based on the AVENA EYHS and HELENA studies. Journal of Public Health 14(5) 269-277. DOI: 10.1007/s10389-006-0059-z

  • 6. Liu W. Nichols R.A. Zillifro T.D. (2013). Comparison and comparability: Fitness tracking between youths with different physical activity levels. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science 17(4) 295-309. DOI: 10.1080/1091367X.2013.831764

  • 7. Moliner-Urdiales D. Ruiz J.R. Ortega F.B. Jiménez-Pavón D. Vicente-Rodriguez G. Rey-Lopéz J.P. (2010). Secular trends in health-related physical fitness in Spanish adolescents: The AVENA and HELENA studies. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 13(6) 584-588. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2010.03.004

  • 8. Welk G.J. Jackson A.W. Morrow J.R. Haskell W.H. Meredith M.D. Cooper K.H. (2010). The association of health-related fitness with indicators of academic performance in Texas Schools. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 81 16-23. DOI: 10.1080/02701367.2010.10599690

  • 9. Welk G.J. Meredith M.D. Ihmels M. Seeger C. (2010). Distribution of health-related physical fitness in Texas Youth: A demographic and geographic analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 81 6-15. DOI: 10.1080/02701367.2010.10599689

  • 10. Meredith M.D. Welk G.J. (2010). FITNESSGRAM & ACTIVITYGRAM Test Administration Manual. Champaign Illinois: Human Kinetics.

  • 11. Oja P. Tuxworth B. (1997). Eurofit for adults: Assessment of health-related fitness. Praha: Karolinum. [in Czech]

  • 12. Chytráčková J. (Ed.). (2002). UNIFITTTEST (6-60). Manual for manual and computer assessment of basic motor fitness and selected characteristics of body build of youth and adults in the Czech Republic. Praha: FTVS UK. [in Czech]

  • 13. Měkota K. Kovář R. (1995). UNIFITTEST (6-60): tests and norms for motor performance and physical fitness in youth and in adult age. Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého.

  • 14. Moravec R. (1990). Somatic functional and motor fitness of 7-18-year old youth in CSFR. Bratislava: MŠMŠ SR. [in Slovak]

  • 15. Moravec R. Kampmiller T. Sedlacek J. (1996). Eurofit. Somatic development and motor fitness in school population in Slovakia. Bratislava: SVSTVŠ. [in Slovak]

  • 16. Suchomel A. (2004). Somatic characteristic of school-aged children with different levels of motor fitness. Liberec: Technická univerzita v Liberci. [in Czech]

  • 17. Suchomel A. (2006). Physically unfit school-aged children (motor assessment primary factors of incidence conditioning programs). Liberec: Technická univerzita v Liberci. [in Czech]

  • 18. Léger L.A. Mercier D. Gadoury C. Lambert J. (1988). The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness. Journal of Sports Sciences 6(2) 93-101. DOI: 10.1080/02640418808729800

  • 19. Zemková E. Dzurenková D. (2006). The use of jumping ergometer for the purpose of talent selection and assessment of lower-body jumping abilities. Telesná výchova a šport 16(4) 24-28. [in Slovak]

  • 20. Harriss D.J. Atkinson G. (2011). Update-ethical standards in sport and exercise science research. International Journal of Sports Medicine 32(11) 819-821. DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1358756

  • 21. Sigmundová D. Sigmund E. (2010). Statistical and practical significance and the use of the coefficient „effect size“ when evaluating physical activity data. Tělesná kultura 35(1) 55-72. DOI: 10.5507/tk.2012.004 [in Czech]

  • 22. Hendl J. (2004). Overview of statistical data processing methods. Praha: Portál. [in Czech]

  • 23. Cohen J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • 24. Michal J. Kollár R. Kružliak M. (2010). Opinions and attitudes of high school students to physical activities physical and sports education. In M. Majherova (ed.) Pohybová aktivita v živote človeka – Pohyb detí (pp. 122-129). Prešov: Prešovská univerzita. [in Slovak]

  • 25. Šmela P. Peráčková J. (2012). Evaluation of the thematic unit fitness training at high school. In A. Cepkova (ed.) Od výskumu k praxi v športe (pp. 275-280). Bratislava. STU Bratislava. [in Slovak].

Journal information
Impact Factor

Index Copernicus: ICV 2016 = 100.00
Ministry of Science and Higher Education: 14 points

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 845 577 10
PDF Downloads 753 508 6