Introduction. The efficient collection and analysis of information from both the central and the peripheral field of vision may affect human coordination motor abilities. An analysis of the literature on the subject suggests that coordination motor abilities interact with one another, and it is only their combined effect that allows athletes to achieve technical mastery. The main aim of the study was to assess specific coordination motor abilities and to determine how visual perception and reaction time correlate with time-movement anticipation in elite female basketball players.
Material and methods. The study participants comprised 17 female basketball players from the Polish National Team aged 18.1 ± 0.8 years. The study involved three ability tests from the Vienna Test System: the Reaction Test (RT, S1), the Peripheral Perception test (PP), and the Time/Movement Anticipation test (ZBA, S2).
Results. The analysis of the results obtained proves that the best-developed ability in participants is reaction time, while the other abilities show average development. Study participants were able to develop their response abilities to such high levels by means of practice. A correlation coefficient was found between motor time and tracking deviation (r=0.56), and between time anticipation and the number of correct responses to stimuli appearing in the left (r=0.92) and right (r=0.88) field of vision. Athletes who achieved better results in time anticipation omitted fewer visual stimuli (r=0.7) in the peripheral field of vision. Statistically significant correlations were observed between movement anticipation and reaction time to stimuli in the central field of vision (r=0.58).
Conclusions. Perception abilities have a significant effect on time anticipation. The range of one's field of vision does not determine the reaction time to a visual stimulus. Perception efficiency and divided attention, in conjunction with time and movement anticipation, create a complex of specific psychomotor abilities that is indispensable for achieving success in team sports.
1. Hitzeman S.A., Beckerman S. (1993). What the literature says about sports vision. Optometry Clinics 3, 145-169.
2. Grabowska A. (2005). Visual perception and its similarities to other forms of perception. In T. Górska, A. Grabowska, J. Zagrodzka (eds), Brain and behavior (pp. 171-216) Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. [in Polish]
3. Hubel D.H. (1989). Eye, brain and vision. New York: Scientific American.
4. Zago M., McIntyre J., Senot P., Lacquaniti F. (2009). Visuomotor coordination and internal models for object interception. Experimental Brain Research 192(4), 571-604. DOI: 10.1007/s00221-008-1691-3.
5. Ando S. (2013). Peripheral Visual Perception During Exercise: Why We Cannot See. Exercise of Sport and Science Research 41(2), 87-92. DOI: 10.1097/JES.0b013e318259ad37.
6. Beckerman S., Hitzeman S.A. (2003). Sport's vision testing of selected athletic participants in the 1997 and 1998 AAU. Journal Olympic Games. Journal of Optometry 74(8), 502-516.
7. Ghasemi A., Momeni M., Rezaee M., Gholami A. (2009). The Difference in Visual Skills Between Expert Versus Novice Soccer Referees. Journal of Human Kinetics 22, 15-20. DOI: 10.2478/v10078-009-0018-1.
8. Raczek J., Mynarski W. (2012). Coordination motor abilities of children and young people: internal structure and variability. Katowice: AWF Katowice. [in Polish]
9. Starosta W. (2003). Motor coordination capacity (meaning, structure, conditions, developing). Warszawa: Międzynarodowe Stowarzyszenie Motoryki Sportowej. [in Polish]
10. Raczek J., Mynarski W., Lyakh V. (1998). Theoretical - empirical basis for shaping and diagnosis of coordination motor abilities. Katowice: AWF Katowice. [in Polish]
11. Lyakh V., Sadowski J., Witkowski Z. (2011). Development of coordination motor abilities (CMA) in the system of long term preparation of athletes. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism 18(3), 187-196.
12. Lindsay P.H., Norman D.A. (1991). Human information processing. An Introduction to Psychology. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
13. Fujii K., Shinya M., Yamashita D., Kouzaki, M., Oda S. (2013). Superior reaction to changing directions for skilled basketball defenders, but not linked with specialized anticipation. Journal of European Sport Science 14(3), 1-9. DOI:10.1080/17461391.2013.780098.
14. Pawelak Z., Laykh V., Witkowski W. (2009). The correlation between different coordinate skills and efficiency of qualified female handball players. In S. Żak, M. Spieszny (eds), The Analysis of Training Process and Competition in Sport Games (Handball) (pp. 66-74). Kraków-Wroclaw: Międzynarodowe Towarzystwo Naukowe Gier Sportowych [in Polish]
15. Starosta W. (2006). Global and local motor coordination in physical education and sport. Warszawa: AWF Warszawa. [in Polish]
16. Bodasiński S. (2008). Changes of indicators in coordination motor abilities in 17-year-old handball players within an annual training cycle. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism 15 (1-2), 29-36.
18. Poliszczuk T., Mosakowska M. (2009). Interactions of peripheral perception and ability of time – movement anticipation in high class competitive badminton players. Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism 16(3), 259-265.
19. Maman P., Sandeep K.B., Jaspal S.S. (2011). Role of sports vision and eye hand coordination training in performance of table tennis players. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity 5(2), 106-116.
20. Gierczuk D., Bujak Z., Rowiński J., Dmitriyev A. (2013). Selected coordination motor abilities in elite wrestlers and taekwon-do competitors. Coordination in combat sports. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism 19(4), 35-38.
21. Zwierko T. (2007). Differences in Peripheral perception between Athletes and Non-athletes. Journal of Human Kinetics 19, 53-62.
22. Kohmura Y, Yoshigi H. (2004). Training Effects of visual function on college baseball players. Human Performance Measurement 1, 15-23.
23. Borysiuk Z., Waśkiewicz Z. (2008). Information Processes, Stimulation and Perceptual Training in Fencing, Journal of Human Kinetics 19, 63-82.
24. Zwierko T., Osiński W., Lubiński W., Czepita D., Florkiewicz B. (2010). Speed of Visual Sensorimotor Processes and Conductivity of Visual Pathway in Volleyball Players. Journal of Human Kinetics 23, 21-27.
25. Jaworski J., Tchórzewski D., Bujas P. (2011). Involution of simple and complex reaction times among people aged between 21 and 80 – the results of computer tests. Human Movement 12(2), 53-158. DOI: 10.2478/v10038-011-0013-y.
26. Tanaka M., Sekiya H., Tanaka Y., (2011). Effects of Explicit and Implicit Perceptual Training on Anticipation Skills of Novice Baseball Players. Asian Journal of Exercise and Sports Science 8(1), 1-15. DOI: 10.4146/jjspopsy.2013-1212.
27. Williams A.M., Huys R., Canal-Bruland R., Hagemann N. (2009). The dynamical information underpinning anticipation skill. Human Movement Science 28, 362-370. DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2008.10.006. Farrow D
28. Reid M. (2012). The contribution of situational probability information to anticipatory skill. Journal of Science Medicine Sport 15(4), 368-374. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2011.12.007.
29. Fujii K., Shinya M., Yamashita D., Kouzaki M., Oda S. (2014). Anticipation by basketball defenders: An explanation based on the three-dimensional inverted pendulum model. European Journal of Sport Science 14(6), 1-9.