Thermal utilization of mixtures of bone waste

Open access

Thermal utilization of mixtures of bone waste

The results of a research related to the physico - chemical properties of the mixture of bone - waste and their ingredients have been presented. The mixtures was made up from waste: bovine bones, pork bones, bone sludge and bone meal. The content of the individual waste in the mixtures was selected on the basis of the heat of the combustion of the mixture and the amount of the waste produced in a meat processing plant. The heat of the combustion has been determined by the calorimeter, the content of phosphorus by spectrophotometric method, calcium by titration and phase composition by X - ray diffraction.

The investigations confirmed that pork bones have the highest heat of the combustion 17 MJ/kg because of a big amount of fats. The analyzed waste has contained on average 16.5 wt % phosphorus and above 30 wt % calcium. X - ray diffraction method has proved that in bone waste one phase - hydroxyapatite occurs.

Karcz, H. & Kozakiewicz, A. (2007). The way of thermal utilization of animal waste. Energetyka i Ekologia, 11, 823-829 (in Polish).

Karcz, H. Thermal utilization of Animals waste. (2005). Energetyka i Ekologia, 3, 173-181 (in Polish).

Regulation of the Minister of Economy, Labour and Social Policy of 22 December 2003 amending the Regulation on the requirements for the process of thermal conversion of waste, Dz. U. z 2004 Nr 1, poz. 2 (in Polish).

Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture and Food Economy of 23 December 1998 on detailed conditions of veterinary collection, processing, burying or burning of animal carcasses and their parts and slaughterhouse waste, Dz. U. z 1999 Nr 3, poz. 23 (in Polish).

Directive 2000/76/CE of European Parliament about waste incineration.

Kowalski, Z., Wzorek Z., Kulczycka J. & Góralczyk M. (2005). Meat waste management. Conference proceedings: The Conference on Industrial Pollution and Sustainable Development, 14-17 December, Maribor, Slovenia.

Kowalski, Z. & Krupa-Żuczek, K. (2007). Model solutions of wasteless management of meat waste. LAB, 5, 20-27 (in Polish).

Regulation of the Minister of Economy of 29 January 2002 on the types of non-hazardous waste and the types of installations and facilities in which they can be thermal converted, Dz. U. z 2002 Nr 18, poz. 176 (in Polish).

Council Directive 96/23/WE of 29 April 1996 on measures to monitor certain substances and residues thereof in live animals and animal products (in Polish).

Council Directive 96/22/WE of 29 April 1996 concerning the prohibition on the use of certain substances having a hormonal action, action and beta-agonists action on livestock (in Polish).

Wilkosz-Język, A. (2007). Receiving of calcium phosphate from meat-bone meal. Doctor's thesis, Cracow University of Technology (in Polish).

Krupa-Żuczek, K., Kowalski Z. & Wzorek Z. (2007). Directions of treatment of bone semi-products and bone waste from meat industry. Recyklace Odpadu XI, Slovenska Akademia Vied Kosice, Slovak Republic, 06-07.12.2007, 57-66 (in Polish).

PN-88/C-87015. Fertilizers. Methods of investigation of phosphates content (in Polish).

PN-97/R-64803. Feed. Feed phosphates (in Polish).

PN-81/G04513. Solid fuel. Determination of heat of combustion and calculation calorific value (in Polish).

Brandt, S. (2002). Data analysis-statistical and analytical methods. Warsaw (in Polish).

Polish Journal of Chemical Technology

The Journal of West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0,975
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0,878

CiteScore 2018: 1

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.269
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.46

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 251 191 4
PDF Downloads 74 54 6