Monitoring Of Pollutants In Museum Environment

Open access

Abstract

Art works are affected by environmental factors as light, temperature, humidity. Air pollutants are also implicated in their degradation. The pollution in museums has two sources: the air from outside, which brings usually dust and inorganic particles, and the inside sources – the materials used for casings (sealants, textiles placed on the display cases, varnishes, wood) that emanate organic compounds. The dust is composed of particles with a diameter of approximately 2µm or higher, which come from soil (silica) or animal and vegetal residues (skin cells, pollen). They facilitate water condensation on objects surface and biologic attack. The inorganic compounds are a result of materials combustion (SO2, NO2, NO) and in presence of water they form acidic compounds which affect the museum objects. The organic compounds are usually peroxides, acids, phthalates, formaldehyde. The effects of these pollutants are: soiling, surface discolouration, embrittlement, corrosion. Therefore, conservators are interested in monitoring the pollution degree in the display cases or in the museum air and in analyzing the effects of pollutants on the exhibited objects. They use different methods for pollutants identification, like direct reading devices based on colorimetry, that can be read after few minutes and hours (they interact with the pollutants in atmosphere), or indirect reading samples that require a laboratory. The information gathered is used for the identification of pollution source and to analyze the concentration of pollutants needed to provoke damages on the surfaces of art objects. This paper is a review of pollutants that affect the art objects and of the monitoring systems used for their identification and measuring.

Druzik, Cecily M. G. (1991) Formaldehyde: Detection and Mitigation, WAAC Newsletter, 13 (2), pp.13-16;

Göpel, W., Jones, T. A., Kleitz, M., Lundström, I., Seiyama, T. (2008) Sensors, Chemical and Biochemical Sensors,vol 3, part II;

Grzywacz, Cecily M. (2006) Monitoring for Gaseous Pollutants in Museum Environments, The Getty Conservation Institute;

Hansen, A.D.A. (2000) The Aethalometer, Magee Scientific Company Berkeley, California, USA;

Hatchfield, Pamela (2004) Pollutants in the Museum Environment: Practical Strategies for Problem Solving in Design, Exhibition and Storage, WAAC Newsletter 26 (2);

Lloyd, Helen, Grossi, Carlota M., Brimblecombe, P. (2011) Low-technology dust monitoring for historic Collections, Journal of the Institute of Conservation, 34 (1), 106 –116;

Moldoveanu. A. (2010), Preventive conservation of cultural goods, Ed. Cetatea de Scaun, Târgovişte;

Nash, D.G., Leith, D. (2010) Use of passive diffusion tubes to monitor air pollutants. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 60 (2) pp.204-209;

Nazaroff, W. W. Ligocki, Mary P., Salmon, Lynn G., Cass, Glen R., Fall, Theresa, Jones, M.C., Liu, H.I.H., Ma, T. (1993) Airborne Particles in Museums;

Peralta, L.M. R., Brito, L.M.P.L., Gouveia, B.A.T., Sousa, D.J.G., Alves, C.S. (2010) Automatic monitoring and control of museums’ environment based on Wireless Sensor Networks, EJSE Special Issue: Wireless Sensor Networks and Practical Applications pp. 12-34;

Raju, P. V., Aravind, R.V.R.S., Kumar, B. S. (2013) Pollution Monitoring System using Wireless Sensor Network in Visakhapatnam, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 4(4) pp. 591-595;

Schieweck, Alexandra (2008) Airborne Pollutants in Museum Showcases. Material emissions, influences, impact on artworks, PhD thesis, Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden;

Slade, Sarah (2003) Air Pollution, Museums Australia Victoria;

Smolík, J., Mašková, L., Zíková, N., Ondráčková, L., Ondráček, J. (2013) Deposition of suspended fine particulate matter in a library, Heritage Science Journal 1(7), pp. 1-5;

Targa, J., Loader, Alison (2008) Tubes made of acrylic or polypropylene Diffusion Tubes for Ambient NO2 Monitoring: Practical Guidance for Laboratories and Users;

Tarnowski, Amber L., McNamara, C. J., Bearce, K. A., Mitchell, R., Sticky Microbes and Dust on Objects in Historic Houses, Objects Specialty Group Postprints, 11, The American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works;

Tétreault, J., (1994) Display Materials: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, From Exhibitions and Conservation. Pre-prints of the Conference held at The Royal College of Physicians, Edinburg. Ed. J. Sage, The Scottish Society for Conservation & Restoration (SSCR), Edinburg;

Thickett, D., Lee, L.R. (2004) Selection of Materials for the Storage or Display of Museum Objects, The British Museum Occasional Paper, 111;

Westby, D. (2011) Basic Guide to Particle Counters and Particle Counter, Particle Measuring Systems;

Wöllenstein, J., Semiconductor Gas Sensors. Using Thin and Thick Film Technology, Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques;

Yoon, Y. H., Brimblecomb P. (2000) Dust at Febrigg Hall, The National Trust View, Issue 32, pp.31-32;

*** http://www.intlsensor.com/pdf/electrochemical.pdf (2008) Electrochemical sensors in International Sensor Technology. Mountain View, CA: IST, ch. 2, pp. 27–35;

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 246 246 20
PDF Downloads 116 116 10