Undoubtedly, El-Kharga Oasis monumental sites are considered an important part of our world´s cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The Roman stone monuments in Kharga represent cultural heritage of an outstanding universal value. Such those monuments have suffered weathering deterioration. There are various elements which affect the weathering process of stone monuments: climate conditions, shapes of cultural heritages, exposed time periods, terrains, and vegetation around them, etc. Among these, climate conditions are the most significant factor affecting the deterioration Archeological sites in Egypt. El- Kharga Oasis belongs administratively to the New Valley Governorate. It is located in the southern part of the western desert of Egypt, lies between latitudes 22º30'14" and 26º00'00" N, and between 30º27'00" and 30º47'00" E. The area of El Kharga Oasis covers about 7500 square kilometers. Pilot studies were carried out on the EI-Nadura Temple, composed of sandstones originating from the great sand sea. The major objective of this study is to monitor and measure the weathering features and the weathering rate affecting the building stones forming El- Nadora Roman building rocks in cubic cm. To achieve that aims the present study used analysis of climatic data such as annual and seasonal solar radiation, Monthly average number of hours of sunshine, maximum and minimum air temperatures, wind speed, which have obtained from actual field measurements and data Meteorological Authority of El-Kharga station for the period 1941 to 2000 (60 years), and from the period 1941-2050 (110 years) as a long term of temperature data. Several samples were collected and examined by polarizing microscopy (PLM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX). The results were in agreement with the observed values in the study area. The deterioration of El-Nadora temple is above 45 % of original temple (138-161 BC), these deteriorations have occurred not only due to the age of the structures, but also due to the climate elements. It was found that the climate is the most important elements influencing weathering. El-Nadora temple is highly influenced by wind action because it has built on a hill top 180 meter in hyper arid climate and exposed to wind without any obstruction. Finally, El-Nadora Temple has lost about 42.46 % of its original size, and if the rate of deterioration on those rates will disappear the major landmarks, symbols and inscriptions fully in 2150.
Abdel-Tawab, S. and Mahmoud A. A., 1992: Geotechnical problems in the area between Mansheit El Sadr and El Quba, East Cairo. Egypt J. Geo., 36, (1-2): 131-141.
Abdel-Aziz, A., 2012: Deterioration of building stones of Greco-Roman building rocks, Ph.D. Faculty of science, Alexandria University. Egypt. 240. P.
Dorsey J, Edelman A., Legakis J., Pederson H.K., Jensen H.W., 1999: Modeling and Rendering of Weathered Stone” -International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques pp. 225-234.
Dearman W.R., 1974: Weathering classification in the characterization of rock for engineering purposes in British practice. Bulletin of international Association of Engineering Geologists. Vol. 9. pp. 33-42.
Dearman W.R., 1978: Weathering classification in the characterization of rock : a revision. Bulletin of International Association of Engineering Geologists, Vol. 18. pp. 123-128.
Domroes, M., and El-Tantawi, A., 2005: recent temporal and spatial temperature changes in EGYPT, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY, Int. J. Climatol. 25: 51-63 (2005).
El-Tantawi, A., 2005: Climate Change in Libya and Desertification of Jifara Plain Using Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing Techniques, Doktor der Naturwissenschaften, Mainz, Germany.
Fookes P.G., 1991: Geomaterial, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology. Vol. 24, pp. 3-15.
El-Gauri, M., and G. Holdren, 1981: Preliminary report on the deterioration of stone at the sphinx, Newsletter of American Research Center in Egypt 114, 1981, pp. 35-47.
El Gohary, M.A., 2010: investigation of lime stone weathering of El-Tuba minaret El- Mehalla, Egypt: a case study, Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, 10, (1): 61-79.
Fitzner, B., Heinrichs, K. 1994: Stone and Monuments: Methodologies for the Analyses of Weathering and Conservation, Damage diagnosis at Monuments Carved from Bedrocks in Petra / Jordan”, Proceedings of the IIIrd International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, Venice, (22-25 June 1994), Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia, pp. 663-672.
Fitzner, B., Heinrichs, K. 1998: Evaluation of Weathering Damages at Natural Stone Monuments Carved from Bedrocks in Petra/Jordan - a research project 1996-1999”, Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan, Vol. XLII, p. 341-360.
Fitzner, B., Mironova, A.A., Cherednichenko,T.S., Lepeshkina, N.F., Savchenok, A.I. 2002: Bio-inert interactions: Life and Rocks, Natural stone used in the art monuments in St. Petersburg and Pecularities of its Decay”, Abstracts of the 1st International Symposium, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, (25-27 June 2002), Dannecker, W & Steiger, pp. 208-211.
Fitzner, B., Heinrichs, K., La Bouchardiere, D. 2003: Weathering damage on Pharaonic sandstone monuments in Luxor - Egypt”, Building and Environment, Vol. 38, Issues 9-10 (Building Stone Decay: Observations, Experiments and Modeling), p. 1089-1103.
Fookes, P.G., Dearman, W.R., Franklin, J.A., 1971: Some engineering aspects of rock weathering with field examples from Dartmoor and elsewhere”, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, vol. 4,No. 3, pp.139-185.
Gauri, K. L. and Holdren, G. C., 1981: Deterioration of stone of the Great sphinx. Am.Res. Egypt. Newsletter, 114: 35-41.
Heinrichs, K. 2004: Assessment of Weathering Progression on Rock-Cut Monuments in Petra / Jordan, 32nd Int. Geol. Congr., Abs. Vol., pt. 1, abs 145-4, pp. 672.
Heinrichs, K. 2004: Impact of Weathering Processes on Building Materials: the Cairo Case Study, 32nd Int. Geol. Congr., Abs. Vol., pt. 2, abs 228-8, pp. 1035.
Lee, C.H., Lee, M.S., Suh, M., Choi, S.W., 2005: Weathering and deterioration of rock properties of the Dabotap pagoda (World Cultural Heritage), Republic of Korea”, Environmental Geology, vol. 47,No. 4, pp.547-557, 2005.
Lee, C.H. and Yi, J.E., 2007: Weathering damage evaluation of rock properties in the Bunhwangsa temple stone pagoda, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea”, Environmental Geology, vol. 52, no. 6,pp.1193-1205, 2007.
Mahmoud, A. A., 1995: Deterioration of the building stones forming the Greco-Roman wall of Alexandria. Proc. Geosciences and Archeology seminar. Geol. Surv., 95-102.
Peliter, L., 1950: The geographic cycle in per glacial regions as it is related to climate geomorphology. Annals of Association of American Geologists, vol. 40, pp. 21.-236.
Salman, A. B., et al, 2010: Environmental impact and natural hazards on El- Kharga Oasis monumental sites, Western Desert of Egypt, Journal of African Earth Sciences 58 (2010) 341-353.
Soliman, S. M., 1998: Spheroidal exfoliation in sedimentary rock monuments. Sixth approach to environmental Geo-Egyptology. Sed. Egypt, 6: 1-11.
Yaldiz, E., 2010: Climate effects on monumental buildings. Fac. Eng. Dep. Architecture, Konya, Turkey, 1-10.