John Jewel, regarded as the principal apologist and theologian for the Elizabethan Church, was also esteemed as one of England’s most important (if not the most important) authority on the subject of usury, and therefore was cited frequently by opponents of usury towards the end of the sixteenth century and throughout the seventeenth century. One of the most sustained interpretations of Jewel as a theologian on the subject of usury was by Christoph Jelinger, who observed that the late bishop of Sarum employed the same theological method in opposing usury as he did in defending the doctrines and practices of the Church of England against its Catholic opponents, that is, by appealing to the Scriptures, the Church Fathers, Church Councils, and the example of the primitive church. This article seeks to confirm the opinion of Jelinger, and in doing so show that Jewel’s opposition to usury stemmed primarily from the conviction that it was both a vice and heresy that eroded the unifying attribute of Christian society which was love.
(1634) Death of Usury, or the Disgrace of Usurers. London: Robert Allott.
Bentham J (1635) The Christian Conflict: Shewing the Difficulties and Duties of this Conflict, with the Armour and Speciall Graces to be Exercised by Christian Souldiers. London: Philemon Stephens & Christopher Meredith.
Blaxton J (1634) The English Usurer or Usury Condemned By The Most Learned and Famous Divines of the Church of England, and Dedicated to all His Majesties Subjects, For the Stay of Further Increase of the Same. London: John Norton.
Bolton R (1637) A Short and Private Discourse between M. Bolton and one M.S. concerning Usury. London: George Miller.
Burnet G (1865) The History of the Reformation of the Church of England. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Downame G (1604) Lectures on the XV Psalm: Read in the Cathedral Church. London: Adams Flip.
Gazal AA (2014) ‘A Crime Most Heinous’: The Concept of Heresy in John Jewel’s Apology of the Church of England. In Defending the Faith Conference, Salisbury, United Kingdom, 17 September 2014.
Geisst CR (2013) Beggar Thy Neighbor: A History of Usury and Debt. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Humphrey L (1573) Iohannes Iuelli Angli, Episcopi Sarisburiensis Vita. London: John Day.
Institute of Historical Research (1682) Journal of the House of Commons: April 1571. The Journals of all the Parliaments during the reign of Queen Elizabeth (accessed 5 July 2011) http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43684.
Institute of Historical Research (1767) House of Lords Journal Volume 1: 30 April 1571. Journal of the House of Lords. Volume 1: 1509-1577 (1767-1830) (accessed 4 October 2011) http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?-compid=31781.
Jelinger C (1670) Usury Stated Overthrown Or, Usury’s Champions with Their Auxiliaries Shamefully Disarmed and Beaten By An Answer to Its Chief Champion Which Lately Appeared in Print to Defend It. London: J Wright.
Jewel J (1845a) Commentary of St. Paul’s Epistles to the Thessalonians. In Ayre J (ed) The Works of John Jewel, 4 volumes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 2:813-946.
Jewel J (1845b) Paper on Usury. In Ayre J (ed) The Works of John Jewel, 4 volumes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 4: 1283-98.
Jones DW (2004) Reforming the Morality of Usury: A Study of the Differences that Separated the Protestant Reformers. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Jones NL (1989) God and the Moneylenders: Usury and Law in Early Modern England. Oxford: Blackwell.
Jones NL (1990) Religion and Parliament. In Dean DN and Jones NL (eds) The Parliaments of Elizabethan England. Oxford: Blackwell.
Kerridge E (2002) Usury, Interest, and the Reformation. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Medine P (1986) Thomas Wilson. Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers.
Moss M (1595) The Arraignment and Conviction of Vsvrie: That is, The Iniqutie, and Unlawfulness of Usurie, Displayed in Sixe Sermons, Preached at Saint Edmunds Burie in Suffolk, Upon Proverb 28:8. London: Thomas Man.
Nelson B (1949) The Idea of Usury: From Tribal Brotherhood to Universal Otherhood. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Todd M (1987) Christian Humanism and the Puritan Social Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wilson T (1572) A Discourse vppon Usurye, by vvaye of Dialogue and Oracions, for the better varietye, and more delite of all those, that shall reade thys treatise. STC, 25807-403.