Burnout of Older and Younger Employees – The Case of Slovenia

Open access

Abstract

Background and Purpose: People spend a significant part of their lifespan working, but the role of age in job design and implementation of work have largely been ignored. The consequences can be evident in stress and burnout in different symptoms. Thus, age-diverse employees are faced with different symptoms of burnout and stress when carrying out their work. The main aim of this paper is to present burnout of older employees compared to younger employees in Slovenian companies.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper is based on research including a survey between two age groups of employees, namely the younger employees that were classified in the group of under 50 years of age and the older employees that were classified in the group of above 50 years of age. Since the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro- Wilk test showed that the data was not normally distributed, the noan-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to verify differences in the physical symptoms of burnout, emotional symptoms of burnout, and behavioral symptoms of burnout in the workplace between two groups.

Results: The results show that there are significant differences in the great majority of the variables describing the physical symptoms of burnout, emotional symptoms of burnout, and behavioral symptoms of burnout in the workplace between younger and older employees.

Conclusion: Well-being in the workplace of age-diverse employees is a key for long-term effectiveness of organizations. Managers and employers should apply appropriate measures to reduce burnout as well as to contribute to employees well-being and better workplace performance.

Ahola, K., Honkonen, T., Isometsa, E., Kalimo, R., Nykyri, E., & Koskinen, S. (2006). Burnout in the General Population: Results from the Finnish health 2000 study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41 (1), 11-17. In Hertel G., van der Heijden B.I. J.M., de Lange A. H., & Deller J. (2013b). Facilitating Age Diversity in Organizations - Part I: Challenging Popular Misbeliefs. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28 (7/8), 729-740, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JMP07-2013-0233

Ambrose, J., & Norman Benson Wier, C.S. (2010). Healthy Lifestyle as a Coping Mechanism for Role Stress in Public Accounting. Behavioral Research in Accounting, 22, 21-41, http://dx.doi.org/10.2308/bria.2010.22.1.21

Ashikali T., & Groeneveld S. (2015). Diversity Management for All? An Empirical Analysis of Diversity Management Outcomes Across Groups. Personnel Review, 44 (5), 757-780, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/PR-10-2014-0216

Ashill, N. J., Rod, M., Thirkell, P., & Carruthers, J. (2009). Job Resourcefulness, Symptoms of Burnout and Service Recovery Performance: An Examination of Call Centre Frontline Employees. Journal of Services Marketing, 23 (5), 338-350, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/08876040910973440

Bastič, M. (2006). Metode raziskovanja [Research Methods]. Ekonomsko-poslovna fakulteta, Univerza v Mariboru.

Beaver, G., & Hutchings, K. (2005). Training and Developing an Age Diverse Workforce in SMEs: The need for a strategic approach. Education + Training, 47 (8/9), 592-604, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00400910510633134

Beata A. B., & Izabela W., A. M. D. (2014). Fatigue and Burnout in Police Officers: The mediating role of emotions. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 37 (3), 665-680, http://dx-.doi.org/10.1108/PIJPSM-10-2013-0105

Brandy K. L., & Cox, G. O. (2002). Management of Occupational Stress. NY: Macmillan Publishers. In Babajide, E. O., & Akintayo, I. (2011). Occupational Stress, Psychological Well Being and Workers Behavior in Manufacturing Industries in South-West Nigeria. International Journal of Management & Innovation, 3 (1), 32-42, http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/172250455

Burke R. J, & Greenglass E. R. (2001). Hospital Restructuring, Work-family Conflict and Psychological Burnout Among Nursing Staff. Psychol, Health. In Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W.B., & Leiter, M.P. (2001). Job Burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22804500

Ellrich, K. (2016). Burnout and Violent Victimization in Police Officers: A dual process model. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 39 (4), 652-666, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/PIJPSM-10-2015-0125

Embriaco, N., Papazian, L., Kentish-Barnes, N., Pochard, F., & Azoulay, E. (2007). Burnout Syndrome among Critical Care Healthcare Workers. Current opinion in critical care, 13 (5), 482-488, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17762223

Fairbrother, K., & Warn, J. (2003). Workplace Dimensions, Stress and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18 (1), 8-21, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940310459565

Fogarty, T. J., Singh, J., Rhoads, G. K., & Moore R. K. (2000). Antecedents and Consequences of Burnout in Accounting: Beyond the role stress model. Behavioral Research in Accounting, 12, 31-68, http://ssrn.com/abstract=37387

George, E., & Zakkariya K.A. (2015). Job Related Stress and Job Satisfaction: A comparative study among bank employees. Journal of Management Development, 34 (3), 316-329, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JMD-07-2013-0097

Grebner, S., Elfering, A., & Semmer, N., K. (2010). The Success Resource Model of Job Stress. In: Perrewé, Pamela L., & Ganster, Daniel C. (eds.) New Developments in Theoretical and Conceptual Approaches to Job Stress. Research in Occupational Stress and Well-being, 8, 61-108. Retrieved from https://books.google.si/books/about/New_Developments_in_Theoretical_and_Conc.html?id=XrJsbnrfBY8C&redir_esc=y

Halkos, G., & Bousinakis, D. (2010). The Effect of Stress and Satisfaction on Productivity. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 59 (5), 415-431, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17410401011052869

Hansson, R.O., Robson, S.M., & Limas, M.J. (2001). Stress and Coping among Older Workers. Work, 17 (3), 247-56, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12441603

Henkens, K., & Leenders, M. (2010). Burnout and Older Workers Intentions to Retire. International Journal of Manpower, 31 (3), 306-321, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437721011050594

Hertel, G., van der Heijden, B.I.J.M., de Lange, A.H., & Deller J. (2013b). Facilitating Age Diversity in Organizations - Part I: Challenging Popular Misbeliefs. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28 (7/8), 729-740, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JMP-07-2013-0233

Hertel, G., van der Heijden, B.I.J.M., de Lange, A.H., & Deller J. (2013a). Facilitating Age Diversity in Organizations - Part II: Managing Perceptions and Interactions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28 (7/8), 857-866, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JMP-07-2013-0234

Kristensen, T.S., Borritz, M., Villadsen, E., & Christensen, K.B. (2005). The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A New Tool for the Assessment of Burnout. In Robinson, L.D., Megee, C., & Caputi, P. (2016). Burnout and the Work-family Interface: A Two-wave Study of sole and partnered working mothers. Career Development International, 21 (1), 31-44, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/CDI-06-2015-0085

Ilmarinen, J. (2001). Aging Workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58 (8), 546-552, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11452053

Intiyas Utami, S. C., & Supriyadi, G. M. (2013). Flexible Working Arrangement and Stress Management Training in Mitigating Auditor’s Burnout: An Experimental Study. Accounting & Taxation, 5 (1), 97-113, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2270892

Leiter, M.P., Frizzell, C., Harvie, P., & Churchill, L. (2001). Abusive Interactions and Burnout: Examining Occupation, Gender, and the Mediating Role of Community. Psychology and Health, 16 (5), 547-63, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870440108405526

Lester, J. M., & Brower K. L. (2001). Industrial psychology. NY: Macmillan Press Ltd.

Malik, O.F., Waheed, A., & Malik, K.U.R. (2010). The Mediating Effects of Job Satisfaction on Role Stressors and Affective Commitment. International Journal of Business and Management, 5 (11), 223-235, http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v5n11p

Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W.B., & Leiter, M.P. (2001). Job Burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422. Retrieved from http://www.wilmarschaufeli.nl/publications/Schaufeli/154.pdf

Michael, O., Court, D., & Petal, P. (2009). Job Stress and Organizational Commitment among Mentoring Coordinators. International Journal of Educational Management, 23 (3), 266-288, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09513540910941766

Moore, J. (2000). One Road to Turnover: An Examination of Work Exhaustion in Technology Professionals. MIS Quarterly, 24 (1), 141-168, https://www.jstor.org/stable/3250982

Morgeson, F.P., & Humphrey, S.E. (2006). The Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ): Developing and Validating a Comprehensive Measure for Assessing Job Design and the Nature of Work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (6), 1321-1339, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17100487

Mosadeghrad, A.M. (2014). Occupational Stress and its Consequences: Implications for Health Policy and Management. Leadership in Health Services, 27 (3), 224-239, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/LHS-07-2013-0032

Nahrgang, J. D., Morgeson, F. P., & Hofmann, D.A. (2011). Safety at Work: A Meta-analytic Investigation of the Link Between Job Demands, Job Resources, Burnout, Engagement, and Safety Outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96 (1), 71-94, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21171732

Naegele, G., & Walker, A. (2006). A Guide to Good Practice in Age Management. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1-35. Retrieved from http://www.ageingatwork.eu/resources/a-guide-to-good-practicein-age-management.pdf

Parkes, H. L. (2002). Human health and management. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.

Walker, A., & Taylor, P. (1998). Combating Age Barriers in Employment: a European Portfolio of Good Practice, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxemburg. In Principi A., Fabbietti P., & Lamura G. (2015). Perceived Qualities of Older Workers and Age Management in Companies: Does the Age of HR Managers Matter? Personnel Review, 44 (5), 801-820, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/PR-09-2013-0158

Pruessner, J. C., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (1999). Burnout, Perceived Stress, and Cortisol Responses to Awakening. Psychosomatic medicine, 61 (2), 197-204, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10204973

Rumbles, S., & Rees G. (2013). Continuous Changes, Organizational Burnout and the Implications for HRD. Industrial and Commercial Training, 45 (4), pp. 236-242, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00197851311323538

Shirom, A. (1989). Burnout in Work Organizations. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. New York: Wiley,

Suner-Soler, R., Grau-Martína, A., Flichtentrei, D., Prats M., Braga F., Font-Mayolas S., & Gras, M.E. (2014). The Consequences of Burnout Syndrome among Healthcare Professionals in Spain and Spanish speaking Latin American countries. Burnout and Health- Care, 1 (2), pp. 82-89, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burn.2014.07.004

Swider, R.B.W., & Zimmerman, Y.D. (2010). Born to Burnout: A Meta-analytic Path Model of Personality, Job Burnout, and Work Outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 487-506, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.01.003

Truxillo, D.M., Cadiz, D.M., Rineer, J.R., Zaniboni, S., & Fraccaroli, F. (2012). A Lifespan Perspective on Job Design: Fitting the Worker to the Job to Promote Job Satisfaction, Engagement, and Performance. Organizational Psychology Review, 2 (4), 340-360. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2041386612454043

Yavas, U., Babakus, E., & Karatepe, O.M. (2013). Does Hope Moderate the Impact of Job Burnout on Frontline Bank Employees In‐role and Extra‐role Performances? International Journal of Bank Marketing, 31 (1), 56-70, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02652321311292056

Yunus, M.J., & Mahajar, A. (2009). The Empirical Study of Burnout among Nurses of Publichospitals in the Northern Part of Malaysia. Journal of International Management Studies, 4 (3), 1-9. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=B656EC2B7DF348BBD4E6C3EADA2E7DF7?-doi=10.1.1.383.8225&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Zaniboni, S., Truxillo, D. M., Fraccaroli, F., McCune, E. A., & Bertolino, M. (2014). Who Benefits from More Tasks? Older Versus Younger Workers. Managerial Psychology, 29 (5), 523-508, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JMP-12-2012-0381

Organizacija

Journal of Management, Informatics and Human Resources

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.43

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.154
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.040

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 822 817 53
PDF Downloads 800 798 44