The influence of thermal annealing on structure and oxidation of iron nanowires

Open access


Raman spectroscopy as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied in order to study the phase composition of iron nanowires and its changes, caused by annealing in a neutral atmosphere at several temperatures ranging from 200°C to 800°C. As-prepared nanowires were manufactured via a simple chemical reduction in an external magnetic field. Both experimental techniques proved formation of the surface layer covered by crystalline iron oxides, with phase composition dependent on the annealing temperature (Ta). At higher Ta, hematite was the dominant phase in the nanowires.

1. Chertok, B., Moffat, B. A., David, A. E., Yu, F., Bergemann, C., Ross, B. D., & Yang, V. C. (2008). Iron oxide nanoparticles as a drug delivery vehicle for MRI monitored magnetic targeting of brain tumors. Biomaterials, 29(4), 487–496. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.08.050.

2. Zhang, X. X., Wen, G. H., Huang, S., Dai, L., Gao, R., & Wang, Z. L. (2001). Magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles trapped at the tips of the aligned carbon nanotubes. J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 231(1), 9–12. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-8853(01)00134-2.

3. Bolm, C., Legros, J., Le Paih, J., & Zani, L. (2004). Iron-catalyzed reactions in organic synthesis. Chem. Rev., 104(12), 6217–6254. DOI: 10.1021/cr040664h.

4. Getzlaff, M., Bansmann, J., & Schonhense, G. (1995). Oxygen on Fe(100) and Fe(110). Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 353(5/8), 743–747. DOI: 10.1007/BF00321362.

5. Zeeshan, M. A., Pane, S., Youn, S. K., Pellicer, E., Schuerle, S., Sort, J., Fusco, S., Lindo, A. M., Park, H. G., & Nelson, B. J. (2013). Graphite coating of iron nanowires for nanorobotic applications: Synthesis, characterization and magnetic wireless manipulation. Adv. Funct. Mater., 23(7), 823–831. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202046.

6. Lin, W. S., Jian, Z. J., Lin, H. M., Lai, L. C., Chiou, W. A., Hwu, Y. K., Wu, S. H., Chen, W. C., & Yao, Y. D. (2013). Synthesis and characterization of iron nanowires. J. Chinese Chem. Soc., 60(1), 85–91. DOI: 10.1002/jccs.201200263.

7. Jubb, A. M., & Allen, H. C. (2010). Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of hematite, maghemite, and magnetite thin films produced by vapor deposition. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2(10), 2804–2812. DOI: 10.1021/am1004943.

8. Cornell, R. M., & Schwertmann, U. (2003). The iron oxides. Structure, properties, reactions, occurrences and uses. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH.

9. Wang, C. M., Baer, D. R., Amonette, J. E., Engelhard, M. H., Antony, J., & Qiang, Y. (2009). Morphology and electronic structure of the oxide shell on the surface of iron nanoparticles. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131(25), 8824–8832. DOI: 10.1021/ja900353f.

10. Long, G. J., Hautot, D., Pankhurst, Q. A., Vandormael, D., Grandjean, F., Gaspard, J. P., Briois, V., Hyeon, T., & Suslick, K. S. (1998). Mossbauer-Bauer-effect and x-ray-absorption spectral study of sonochemically prepared amorphous iron. Phys. Rev. B, 57(17), 10716–10722. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.57.10716.

11. Machala, L., Zboril, R., & Gedanken, A. (2007). Amorphous iron(III) oxide – a review. J. Phys. Chem. B, 111(16), 4003–4018. DOI: 10.1021/jp064992s.

12. Cao, X., Koltypin, Y., Katabi, G., & Prozorov, R. (1997). Preparation and characterization of amorphous nanometre sized Fe3O4 powder. J. Mater. Chem., 7(6), 1007–1009. DOI: 10.1039/a606739e.

13. Petrov, Y. I., & Shafranovsky, E. A. (2012). On the conditions eliciting a detailed structure in the hyperfine field distribution at 57Fe nuclei. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B-Beam Interact. Mater. Atoms, 271, 96–101. DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2011.10.014.


The Journal of Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.720
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.610

CiteScore 2017: 0.64

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.294
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.509

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 199 194 29
PDF Downloads 137 137 28