European labour markets have become increasingly accessible to foreign workers because of increased global migration and the implementation of international labour mobility agreements. Yet, skilled immigrants have lower occupational attainment. The regulated occupations, however, are more inclusive of immigrants than unregulated occupations. This article investigates immigrants’ likelihood of gaining access to licensed occupations in Norway, as well as how this varies between regions of origin and between immigrants with a foreign or domestic degree to determine whether employment outcomes are due to different impacts of regulatory frameworks. The empirical investigation uses administrative register data that cover the years 2003–2012. The results show that there are no significant differences between the immigrant groups with a domestic degree, while the results for immigrants with foreign degrees signal that without international agreements on mutual recognition of education credentials, those who are educated for a licensed profession are somewhat restricted in performing it.
Alecu, AI & Drange, I 2016, ‘Hvilken betydning har regulering av yrker for yrkesmobilitet i Norge? [Assessing the role of licensure and certifications for occupational mobility in Norway]’, Søkelys på arbeidslivet, vol. 33, no. 1-2, pp.101-121, DOI:10.18261/issn.1504-7989-2016-01-02-06
Andriessen, I, Nievers, E, Dagevos, J & Faulk, L 2012, ‘Ethnic discrimination in the Dutch labor market: its relationship with job characteristics and multiple group membership’, Work and Occupations, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 237-269, DOI: 10.1177/0730888412444783.
Arendt, JN, Nielsen, CP & Jakobsen, V 2017, ‘The importance of origin and destination country skills for labour market attachment of immigrants from Pakistan, Iran and Turkey’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 72-80, DOI:10.1515/njmr-2016-0015.
Bach, S 2010, ‘Managed migration? Nurse recruitment and the consequences of state policy’, Industrial Relations Journal, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 249-266.
Bol, T & Drange, I 2017, ‘Occupational closure and wages in Norway’, Acta Sociologica, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 134-157, DOI: 10.1177/0001699316659768
Bol, T & Weeden, KA 2015, ‘Occupational closure and wage inequality in Germany and the United Kingdom’, European Sociological Review, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 354-369.
Boyd, M & Schellenberg, G 2007, ‘Re-accreditation and the occupations of immigrant doctors and engineers’, Canadian Social Trends, vol. 84, pp. 1-10.
Boyd, M & Thomas, D 2002, ‘Skilled immigrant labour: country of origin and the occupational locations of male engineers’, Canadian Studies in Population, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 71-99.
Carter, D & Signorino, C 2010, ‘Back to the future: modeling time dependence in binary data’, Political Analysis, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 271-292.
Chavez, K & Bird, BR 2015, ‘Occupational licensure and changing barriers to immigrant workforce incorporation’, in How global migration changes the workforce diversity equation, eds T Fashoyin, M Tiraboschi, F Sperotti, C Tilly & P Manzella, Cambridge Scholar Publications, Newcastle upon Tyne.
Chiswick, B 1978, ‘The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men’, Journal of Political Economy, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 897-921, DOI:10.1086/260717
Chiswick, B & Miller, P 2009, ‘The international transferability of immigrants’ human capital’, Economics of Education Review, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 162-169, DOI:10.1016/j.econedurev.2008.07.002.
Chiswick, B, Lee, YL & Miller, P 2005, ‘A longitudinal analysis of immigrant occupational mobility: a test of the immigrant assimilation hypothesis’, International Migration Review, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 332-353, DOI:10.1111/j.1747-7379.2005.tb00269.x.
de Veer, A, den Ouden, DJ & Francke, A 2004, ‘Experiences of foreign European nurses in the Netherlands’, Health Policy, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 55-61, DOI:10.1016/j.healthpol.2003.08.006.
Demireva, N 2011, ‘New migrants in the UK: employment patterns and occupational attainment’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 637-655, DOI:10.1080/1369183X.2011.545308.
Drange, I 2013, ‘Early-Career Income Trajectories Among Physicians and Dentists: The Significance of Ethnicity’, European Sociological Review, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 346-358, DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcr071
Drange, I 2014, ‘Degrees of Closure and Economic Success in the Norwegian Labour Market: Field of Study and Non-Western Immigrant Performance’, Journal of Education and Work, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 402-426, DOI: 10.1080/13639080.2014.976186
Drange, I & Helland, H 2018, ‘The Sheltering Effect of Occupational Closure? Consequences for Ethnic Minorities’ Earnings’, Work and Occupations, (a-head of print), DOI: 10.1177/0730888418780970
Fleischmann, F & Dronkers, J 2010, ‘Unemployment among immigrants in European labour markets: an analysis of origin and destination effects’, Work, Employment and Society, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 337-354.
Forcier, M, Simoens, S & Giuffrida, A 2004, ‘Impact, regulation and health policy implications of physician migration in OECD countries’, Human Resources for Health, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 12.
Frank, K 2013, ‘Immigrant employment success in Canada: examining the rate of obtaining a job match’, International Migration Review, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 76-105, DOI:10.1111/imre.12014.
Girard, M & Smith, M 2013, ‘Working in a regulated occupation in Canada: an immigrant–native born comparison’, Journal of International Migration and Integration, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 19-24.
Gomez, R, Gunderson, M, Huang, X & Zhang, T 2015, ‘Do Immigrants Gain or Lose by Occupational Licensing?’, Canadian Public Policy, vol. 41, Issue supplement 1, pp. S80-S97, DOI:10.3138/cpp.2014-028
Karlsen, H 2012, ‘Gender and ethnic differences in occupational positions and earnings among nurses and engineers in Norway: identical educational choices, unequal outcomes’, Work, Employment & Society, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 278-295.
Kleiner, MM 2006, Licensing Occupations: Ensuring Quality or Restricting Competition? WE Upjohn Institute.
Kogan, I 2006, ‘Labor markets and economic incorporation among recent immigrants in Europe’, Social Forces, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 697-721.
Koumenta, M, Humphris, A, Kleiner, M & Pagliero, M 2014, Occupational regulation in the EU and UK: prevalence and labour market impacts. Queen Mary University of London, London.
Midtbøen, AH 2015, ‘Ethnic penalties in western labour markets’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 185-193, DOI:10.1515/njmr-2015-0022.
Midtbøen, AH 2015, ‘The context of employment discrimination: interpreting the findings of a field experiment’, The British Journal of Sociology, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 193-214, DOI:10.1111/1468-4446.12098.
Mood, C 2010, ‘Logistic regression: why we cannot do what we think we can do, and what we can do about it’, European Sociological Review, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 67-82.
Norges Offentlige Utredninger (NOU) 2011, Bedre integrering – mål, strategier og tiltak [Better integration – aims, strategies and measures]. Barne-, likestillings- og inkluderingsdepartementet, Oslo.
Peterson, BD, Pandya, SS, & Leblang, D 2014, ‘Doctors with borders: occupational licensing as an implicit barrier to high skill migration’, Public Choice, vol. 160, no. 1., pp 45-63. DOI:10.1007/s11127-014-0152-8
Pichler, F 2011, ‘Success on European labor markets: a cross-national comparison of attainment between immigrant and majority populations’, International Migration Review, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 938-978, DOI:10.1111/j.1747-7379.2011.00873.
Rambøll 2009, Kartlegging: godkjenningsordninger for lovregulerte yrker [Mapping:Recognition for regulated occupations]. Arbeids- og inkluderingsdepartementet.
Redbird, B 2017, ‘The New Closed Shop? The Economic and Structural Effects of Occupational Licensure’, American Sociological Review, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 600-624, DOI: 10.1177/0003122417706463.
SSB. 2015, Statistics Norway, Oslo. Helse- og sosialpersonell, 2015, 4. Kvartal [Health- and social workers, 2015, 4th quarter], Available from: http://www.ssb.no/hesospers [Accessed 27 June, 2016].
Steinkellner, A & Holseter, AMR 2013, Befolkningens utdanningsnivå, etter spørreundersøkelsen om utdanning fullført i utlandet [The population’s education level after the survey about education abroad]’, Rapporter 2013/24. Statistisk sentralbyrå, Oslo/Kongsvinger.
Støren, LA & Wiers-Jenssen, J 2010, ‘Foreign diploma versus immigrant background determinants of labour market success or failure?’ Journal of Studies in International Education, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 29-49.
Støren, LA & Wiers-Jenssen, J 2016, ‘Transition from higher education to work: are master graduates increasingly over-educated for their jobs?’ Tertiary Education and Management, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 134-148, DOI:10.1080/13583883.2016.1174290.
van Riemsdijk, M 2006, Rekruttering av polske sykepleiere til Norge. Erfaringer og virkninger [Recruitment of Polish nurses to Norway. Experiences and Effects], Fafo-rapport 2006:27. Fafo, Oslo.
Van Tubergen, F, Maas, I, & Flap, H 2004, ‘The economic incorporation of immigrants in 18 Western societies: origin, destination, and community effects’, American Sociological Review, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 704-727.
Voitchovsky, S 2014, ‘Occupational downgrading and wages of new member states immigrants to Ireland’, International Migration Review, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 500-537, DOI:10.1111/imre.12089.
Weeden, KA 2002, ‘Why do some occupations pay more than others? Social closure and earnings inequality in the United States’, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 55-101.