As the world rapidly becomes a different place for migrants and non-migrants alike, this article asks whether transnational migration scholars have an adequate conceptual toolkit to address the temporal dimensions of mobility regimes. The article notes the way those who initiated the transnational framework for the study of migration conceptualised temporality, critiques the failure of subsequent researchers to adequately address the rapidly altering conditions of migration and offers a concept of multiscalar conjunctural transformation. A multiscalar conjunctural approach allows researchers to address both time and space. It highlights emergent processes of capital accumulation by dispossession and the ways in which such processes are culturally, politically, socially and spatially constituted as people around the world respond to multiple forms of displacement and reconstitute their lives.
Althusser, L &Balibar, E 2016, , Reading Capital: the complete edition (trans. B Brewster &D Fernbach), Verso, London.
Anderson, P 1992, A zone of engagement, Verso, London. Anderson, G 2014, Ethnic cleansing and the Indian: the crime that should haunt America, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK.
Appadurai, A 1990, ‘Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy’, Theory, Culture &Society, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 295-310, DOI:10.1177/026327690007002017.
Bada, X 2014, Mexican hometown associations in Chicagoacán: from local to transnational civic engagement, Rutgers UP, New Brunswick, NJ.
Baldassar, L &Merla, L (eds.) 2014, Transnational families, migration and the circulation of care: understanding mobility and absence in family life, Routledge, London.
Basch, L, Glick Schiller, N &Szanton Blanc, C 1994, Nations unbound: transnational projects, postcolonial predicaments, and the deterritorialized nation-state, Gordon and Breach (Routledge), New York.
Basch, L, Wiltshire, R, Wiltshire, W &Toney, J 1990, Caribbean regional and international migration: transnational dimensions, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.
Bevelander, P &Petersson, B (eds.) 2014, Crisis and migration: implications of the eurozone crisis for perceptions, politics, and policies of migration, Nordic Academic Press, Lund.
Boehm, D 2009, ‘¿Quien sabe?”: deportation and temporality among transnational Mexicans’, Urban Anthropology and Studies of Cultural Systems and World Economic Development, vol. 38, no. 2/3/4, pp. 345-374.
Brenner, N 1999, ‘Beyond state-centrism? space, territoriality and geographical scale in globalization studies’, Theory and Society, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 39-78.
Brenner, N 2011, ‘The urban question and the scale question: some conceptual clarifications’, in Locating migration: rescaling cities and migrants, eds. N Glick Schiller &A Çaglar, Cornell UP, Ithaca, NY, pp. 23-41.
Bryceson, D &Vuorela, U (eds.) 2001, The transnational family. New European frontiers and global networks, Berg, Oxford.
Burawoy, M 1989, ‘Two methods in search of science: Skocpol vs Trotsky’, Theory and Society, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 759-805.
Butler, J 2009, Frames of war. When is life grievable?, Verso, London.
Çağlar, A 2013, ‘Locating migrant hometown ties in time and space. Locality as a blind spot of migration scholarship’, Historische Anthropologie, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 26-42, DOI:10.7788/ha.2013.21.1.26.
Çağlar, A 2016, ‘Still “migrants” after all those years: foundational mobilities, temporal frames and emplacement of migrants’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 952-969, DOI:10.1080/1369183X.2015.1126085.
Çağlar, A &Glick Schiller, N 2018, Migrants and city-making: multiscalar perspectives on dispossession and urban regeneration, Duke UP, Durham, NC.
Cervantes-Rodriguez, M 2010, International migration in Cuba: accumulation, imperial designs, and transnational social fields, Penn State UP, University Park, PA.
Chaney, EM 1979, ‘The world economy and contemporary migration’, International Migration Review, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 204-212, DOI:10.1177/019791837901300201.
Charles, C 1992, ‘Transnationalism in the construction of Haitian migrants’ racial categories of identity in New York City’, in Towards a transnational perspective on migration: race, class, ethnicity and nationalism reconsidered, eds. N Glick Schiller, L Basch &C Blanc Szanton, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 101-124.
Fabian, J 1983, Time and the other: how anthropology makes its object, Columbia, New York.
Faist, T 1998, International migration and transnational social spaces, Institute for Intercultural Studies (InIIS), University of Bremen, Bremen.
Faist, T 2000, The volume and dynamics of international migration and transnational social spaces, Oxford UP, Oxford.
Faist, T 2004, ‘The transnational turn in migration research: perspectives for the study of politics and polity’, in Transnational space: disciplinary perspectives, ed. M Povrzanović Frykman, Malmö University, Malmö, pp. 11-45.
Featherstone, D, Phillips, R &Waters, J 2007, ‘Introduction: spatialities of transnational networks’, Global Networks, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 383-391, DOI:10.1111/j.1471-0374.2007.00175.x.
Feldman-Bianco, B 1992, ‘Multiple layers of time and space: the construction of class, race, ethnicity, and nationalism among Portuguese immigrants’, in Towards a transnational perspective on migration: race, class, ethnicity and nationalism reconsidered, eds. N Glick Schiller, L Basch &C Blanc Szanton, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 145-174.
Feldman-Bianco, B 2001, ‘Brazilians in Portugal, Portuguese in Brazil: constructions of sameness and difference’, Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 607-650, DOI:10.1080/1070289X.2001.9962710.
Feldman-Bianco, B 2011, ‘Remaking locality: uneven globalization and transmigrants’ uneven incorporation’, in Locating migration: remaking cities and migrants, eds. N Glick Schiller &A Çağlar, Cornell, Ithaca, NY, pp. 213-234.
Feldman-Bianco, B 2018, ‘Anthropology and ethnography: the transnational perspective on migration and beyond’, Etnográfica, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 195-215, DOI:10.4000/etnografica.5203.
Feldman-Bianco, B &Heller, M 2012, ‘Displacements and inequalities: comparative perspectives on global capitalism’, Panel of the Annual Meetings of the American Anthropological Association, Washington DC, Dec 3-7. Available from: <https://aaa.confex.com/aaa/2012/webprogram/Session5697.html>. [Last accessed 10.7. 2018].
Foner, N 1997, ‘What’s new about transnationalism? New York’s immigrants today and at the turn of the century’, Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 355-375, DOI:10.1353/dsp.1997.0013.
Georges, E 1992, ‘Gender, class, and migration in the Dominican Republic: women’s experiences in a transnational community’, in Towards a transnational perspective on migration: race, class, ethnicity and nationalism reconsidered, eds. N Glick Schiller, L Basch &C Blanc Szanton, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 81-99.
Gill, S 1992, ‘Economic globalization and the internationalization of authority: limits and contradictions’, Geoforum; Journal of Physical, Human, and Regional Geosciences, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 269-283, DOI:10.1016/0016-7185(92)90042-3.
Glassman, J 2006, ‘Primitive accumulation, accumulation by dispossession, accumulation by “extra-economic” means’, Progress in Human Geography, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 608-625, DOI:10.1177/0309132506070172.
Glick Schiller, N 1997, ‘The situation of transnational studies’, Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 155-166, DOI:10.1080/1070289X.1997.9962587.
Glick Schiller, N 1999, ‘Transmigrants and nation-states: something old and something new in the US immigrant experience’, in The handbook of international migration: the American experience, eds. C Hirshman, P Kasinitz &J DeWind, Russell Sage, New York, pp. 94-119.
Glick Schiller, N 2003, ‘The centrality of ethnography in the study of transnational migration: seeing the wetland instead of the swamp’, in American arrivals, ed. N Foner, School of American Research, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 99-128.
Glick Schiller, N 2009, ‘A global perspective on migration and development’, Social Analysis, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 14-37, DOI:10.3167/sa.2009.530302.
Glick Schiller, N 2010, ‘A global perspective on transnational migration: theorizing migration without methodological nationalism’, in Diaspora and transnationalism: concepts, theories and methods, eds. R Bauböck &T Faist, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, pp. 109-120.
Glick Schiller, N 2015, ‘Explanatory frameworks in transnational migration studies: the missing multi-scalar global perspective’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 38, no. 13, pp. 2275-2282, DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2015.1058503.
Glick Schiller, N, Basch, L &Blanc-Szanton, C 1992a, ‘Towards a definition of transnationalism: introductory remarks and research questions’, in Towards a transnational perspective on migration: race, class, ethnicity and nationalism reconsidered, eds. N
Glick Schiller, L Basch &C Blanc-Szanton, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. ix-xiv.
Glick Schiller, N, Basch, L &Blanc-Szanton, C 1992b, ‘Transnationalism: a new analytical framework for understanding migration’, in Towards a Transnational Perspective on Migration: Race, Class, Ethnicity and Nationalism Reconsidered, eds. N Glick Schiller, L Basch &C Blanc Szanton, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 1-24.
Glick Schiller, N, Basch, L &Blanc Szanton, C 1995, ‘From immigrant to transmigrant: theorizing transnational migration’, Anthropological Quarterly, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 48-63, DOI:10.2307/3317464.
Glick Schiller, N &Faist, T (eds.) 2010, Migration, development, and transnationalization: a critical stance, Berghahn, New York.
Glick Schiller, N &Fouron, G 1990, ‘Everywhere we go we are in danger”: Ti Manno and Haitian transnationalism’, American Ethnologist, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 329-347.
Glick Schiller, N &Fouron, G 2000, Georges woke up laughing: long distance nationalism and the search for home, Duke, Durham, NC.
Glick Schiller, N &Fouron, G 2001, ‘I am not a problem without a solution: poverty, transnational migration, and struggle’, in New poverty studies: the ethnography of politics, policy and impoverished people in the US, eds. J Good &J Maskovsky, New York UP, New York, pp. 321-362.
Glick Schiller, N &Salizar, N 2013, ‘Regimes of mobility across the clobe’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 283-200, DOI:10.1080/1369183X.2013.723253
Goldberg, B 1992, ‘Historical reflections on transnationalism, race, and the American immigrant saga’, in Towards a transnational perspective on migration: race, class, ethnicity and nationalism reconsidered, eds. N Glick Schiller, L Basch &C Blanc Szanton, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 201-216.
Goldring, L 1992, Diversity and community in transnational migration: a comparative study of two Mexico-U.S. migrant communities, PhD Dissertation, Department of Rural Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca.
Gramsci, A 1951, Past and present, Einaudi, Torino.
Guarnizo, L 1997, ‘The emergence of a transnational social formation and the mirage of return migration among dominican transmigrants’, Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 281-321, DOI:10.1080/1070289X.1997.9962591.
Hall, S 1979, ‘The great moving right show’, Marxism Today, January, pp. 14-20.
Hall, S 1987, ‘Gramsci and us’, Marxism Today, June, pp. 16-21. Harvey, D 1989, The condition of postmodernity: an enquiry into the origins of cultural change, Blackwell, Malden MA.
Harvey, D 2004, ‘The “new” imperialism: accumulation through dispossession’, Socialist Register, vol. 40, pp. 63-87.
Harvey, D 2012, Rebel cities: from the right of the city to urban revolution, Verso, New York.
Jameson, F 1984, ‘Postmodernism, or the cultural logic of late capitalism’, New Left Review, vol. 146, pp. 53-92.
Jessop, B, Brenner, N &Jones, M 2008, ‘Theorizing sociospatial relations’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 389-401, DOI:10.1068/d9107.
Kasinitz, P, Waters, M, Mollenkopf, J &Holdaway, J 2009, Inheriting the city: the children of immigrants come of age, Russell Sage Foundation, New York.
Kasmir, S &Carbonella, A 2008, ‘Dispossession and the anthropology of labor’, Critique of Anthropology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 5-25, DOI:10.1177/0308275´07086555.
Kearney, M 1991, ‘Borders and boundaries of state and self at the end of empire’, Journal of Historical Sociology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 52-74, DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6443.1991.tb00116.x.
Kearney, M &Nagengast, C 1989, ‘Anthropological perspectives on transnational communities in rural California’, Working Paper 3, Working Group on Farm Labor and Rural Poverty, California Institute for Rural Studies, Davis, CA.
Khagram, S &Levitt, P 2008, ‘Constructing transnational studies’, in The transnational studies reader: intersections and innovations, eds. P Levitt &S Khagram, Routledge, New York, pp. 1-22.
Kivisto, P 2001, ‘Theorizing transnational immigration: a critical review of current efforts’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 549-577, DOI:10.1080/01419870120049789.
Koivisto, J &Lahtinen, M 2012. ‘Conjuncture, Historico-Political’. Historical Materialism, vol 20, no.1, pp. 267-277, DOI:10.1163/156920612X642204
Kotz, D 2015, The rise and fall of neoliberal capitalism, Harvard UP, Cambridge, MA.
Lee, R 1998, ‘Anthropology at the crossroads: from the age of ethnography to the age of world systems’, Social Dynamics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 34-65, DOI:10.1080/02533959808458640.
Leitner, H 1997, ‘Reconfiguring the spatiality of power: the construction of a supranational migration framework for the European Union’, Political Geography, vol. 15, pp. 123-143, DOI:10.1016/S0962-6298(96)00047-9.
Lehtonen, M 2016,’“What’s going on?” in Finland: Employing Stuart Hall for a conjunctural analysis’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 19, no.1, pp. 71 – 84, DOI: doi.org/10.1177/1367877915599612.
Levitt, P 2001, ‘Transnational migration: taking stock and future directions’, Global Networks, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 195-216, DOI:10.1111/1471-0374.00013.
Levitt, P &Glick Schiller, N 2004, ‘Conceptualizing simultaneity: a transnational social field perspective on society’, International Migration Review, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 1002-1039, DOI:10.1111/j.1747-7379.2004.tb00227.x.
Levitt, P &Jaworsky, N 2007, ‘Transnational migration studies: past developments and future trends’, Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 33, pp. 129-156, DOI:10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131816.
Levitt, P &Waters, M 2002, The changing face of home: the transnational lives of the second generation, Russell Sage, New York.
Ley, D 2004, ‘Transnational spaces and everyday lives’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers NS, vol. 29, pp. 151-164, DOI:10.1111/j.0020-2754.2004.00122.x.
Lindquist, J, Xiang, B &Yeoh, B 2012, ‘Opening the black box of migration: brokers, the organization of transnational mobility and the changing political economy in Asia’, Pacific Affairs, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 7-19, DOI:10.5509/20128517.
Lucassen, L 2017, ‘Peeling an onion: the “refugee crisis” from a historical perspective’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 40, pp. 383-410, DOI:10.1080/01419870.2017.1355975.
Luxemburg, R 1951, , The accumulation of capital, Yale UP, New Haven, CT.
MacCabe, C 2008, ‘An interview with Stuart Hall, December 2007’, Critical Quarterly, vol. 50, no. 1-2, pp. 12-42, DOI:10.1111/j.1467-8705.2008.00825.x.
Mahler, S 1998, ‘Theoretical and empirical contributions toward a research agenda for transnationalism’, in Transnationalism from below, eds. L Guarnizo &MP Smith, Transaction Books, New Brunswick, pp. 64-100.
Malkki, L 1995, ‘Refugees and exile: from “refugee studies” to the national order of things’, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 24, pp. 495-523.
Marcus, G 1995, “Ethnography in/of the world system: the emergence of multi-sited ethnography”, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 24, pp. 95-117, DOI:10.1146/annurev.an.24.100195.000523.
Massey, D 1992, ‘Politics and space-time’, New Left Review, vol. 196, pp. 65-84.
Massey, D 1999, ‘Space-time, “science” and the relationship between physical geography and human geography’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 261-276, DOI:10.1111/j.0020-2754.1999.00261.x.
Merton, RK 1961, ‘Singletons and multiples in scientific discovery: a chapter in the sociology of science’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 105, pp. 470-478.
Morawska, E 1999, ‘The new-old transmigrants, their transnational lives, and ethnicization: a comparison of 19th/20th and 20th/21st century situations’, RSCAS Working Papers, European University Institute, Florence.
Nieswand, B 2012, Theorising transnational migration: the status paradox of migration, Routledge, New York.
Noble, D 1977, America by design: science, technology, and the rise of corporate capitalism, Oxford UP, Oxford.
Olwig, K 2007, Caribbean journeys: An ethnography of migration and home in three family networks. Duke UP, Durham, NC.
Ong, A 1992, ‘Limits to cultural accumulation: Chinese capitalists on the American Pacific Rim’, in Towards a transnational perspective on migration: race, class, ethnicity and nationalism reconsidered, eds. N Glick Schiller, L Basch &C Blanc Szanton, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 125-143.
Ozkul, D 2012, ‘Transnational migration research’, Sociopedia.isa. DOI:10.1177/2056846012111.
Pessar, PR &Mahler, SJ 2003, ‘Transnational migration: bringing gender’, International Migration Review, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 812-846, DOI:10.1111/j.1747-7379.2003.tb00159.x.
Petersen, W 1958, ‘A general typology of migration’, American Sociological Review, vol. 23, pp. 256-226, DOI:10.2307/2089239.
Portes, A 2001, ‘Introduction: the debates and significance of immigrant transnationalism’, Global Networks, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 181-194, DOI:10.1111/1471-0374.00012.
Portes, A 2007, ‘Migration, development, and segmented assimilation: a conceptual review of the evidence’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 610, pp. 73-97, DOI:10.1177/0002716206296779.
Portes, A &Fernández-Kelly, P (eds.) 2015, The state and the grassroots: immigrant transnational organizations in four continents, Berghahn, New York.
Portes, A, Guarnizo, L &Landolt, P 1999, ‘The study of transnationalism: pitfalls and promise of an emergent research field’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 217-237, DOI:10.1080/014198799329468.
Poulantzas, N 1973, , Political power and social classes, Verso, London.
Pries, L 1999, ‘New migration in transnational spaces’, in Migration and transnational social spaces, ed. L Pries, Ashgate, Aldershot, pp. 1-35.
Pries, L 2008, Rethinking transnationalism: the mesolinks of organizations, Routledge, New York.
Richter, M 2012, ‘Researching transnational social spaces: a qualitative study of the Spanish second generation in Switzerland’, Forum: Qualitative Social Research, vol. 13, no. 3, DOI:10.17169/fqs-13.3.1678.
Robertson, R 1992, Globalization: social theory and global culture, Sage, London.
Rosenberg, J 2005 ‘Globalization Theory: A Post Mortem’ International Politics, vol 42, no. 2 pp. 2–74), DOI:org/10.1057/palgrave.ip.8800098
Rouse, R 1991, ‘Mexican migration and the social space of postmodernism’, Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 8-23, DOI:10.1353/dsp.1991.0011.
Rouse, R 1992, ‘Making sense of settlement: class transformation, cultural struggle and transnationalism among Mexican migrants in the United States’, in Towards a transnational perspective on migration: race, class, ethnicity and nationalism reconsidered, eds. N Glick Schiller, L Basch &C Blanc-Szanton, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 25-57.
Sassen, S 2014, Expulsions: brutality and complexity in the global economy, Harvard UP, Cambridge, MA.
Sider, G 1992, ‘The contradictions of transnational migration: a discussion’, in Towards a Transnational perspective on migration: race, class, ethnicity and nationalism reconsidered, eds. N Glick Schiller, L Basch &C Blanc Szanton, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 241-250.
Smith, N 1995, ‘Remaking scale: competition and cooperation in pre-national and postnational Europe’, in Competitive European peripheries, eds. H Eskelinen &F Snickars, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 59-74.
Smith, MP &Guarnizo, L 1998, ‘The locations of transnationalism’, in Transnationalism from below, eds. L Guarnizo &MP Smith, Transaction Press, New Brunswick, NJ, pp. 3-34.
Sørensen, N 2013, The migration industry and the commercialization of international migration, Routledge, New York.
Soysal, Y 1994, Limits of citizenship: migrants and postnational membership in Europe, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Standing, G 2011, The precariat: the new dangerous class, Bloomsbury, London.
Sutton, C 1987, ‘The Caribbeanization of New York City and the emergence of a transnational sociocultural system’, in Caribbean life in New York City: sociocultural dimensions, eds. CR Sutton &E Chaney, Center for Migration Studies, New York, pp. 15-30.
Swyngedouw, E 2004, ‘Globalisation or “glocalisation”? Networks, territories and rescaling’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 25-48, DOI:10.1080/0955757042000203632.
Thomson, M &Crul, M 2007, ‘The second generation in Europe and the United States: how is the Transatlantic debate relevant for further research on the European second generation?’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1025-1041, DOI:10.1080/13691830701541556.
Truong, T-D &Gasper, D (eds.) 2011, Transnational migration and human security: the migration-development-security nexus, Springer, New York.
Urry, J 2000, Sociology beyond societies: mobilities for the twenty-first century, Routledge, New York.
Vertovec, S 1999, ‘Conceiving and researching transnationalism’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 447-462, DOI:10.1080/014198799329558.
Vertovec, S 2009, Transnationalism: key ideas, Routledge, New York. Walsh, K &Näre, L (eds.) 2016, Transnational migration and home in older age, Routledge, New York.
Waters, J 2011, ‘Time and transnationalism: a longitudinal study of immigration, endurance and settlement in Canada’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1119-1135, DOI :10.1080/1369183X.2011.572488.
Wiltshire, R 1992, ‘Implications of transnational migration for nationalism: the Caribbean example’, in Towards a transnational perspective on migration: race, class, ethnicity and nationalism reconsidered, eds. N Glick Schiller, L Basch &C Blanc Szanton, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 175-188.
Wimmer, A &Glick Schiller, N 2002, ‘Methodological nationalism and beyond: nation-state building, migration and the social sciences’, Global Networks, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 301-334, DOI:10.1111/1471-0374.00043.