Comparative Analysis of Selected Factors Affecting Heating Costs of Schools in Selected Balkan Countries

Open access


The paper aims to carry out a comparative analysis of heating of school facilities under the administration of municipalities in Macedonia, Moldova and Kosovo and to test the factors that affect the heating costs of school facilities. For a definition of the theoretical fundament parts of the theory of fiscal federalism are used. Subsequently five hypotheses are put forward that are verified using the method of benchmarking. The theoretical conclusions and recommendations may be used for a more effective implementation of public policies within the surveyed countries.

Ágh, A. 2010. “Europeanization and Democratization in ECE: Towards the Multilevel and Multiactor Governance.” The NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy.3 (1). 7 – 59.

Aristovnik, A. 2012. “Fiscal Decentralization in Eastern Europe: Trends and Selected Issues.” Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences 37E, 5 – 22.

Baldwin, R. and C. Wyplosz. 2004. The Economics of European Integration. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.

Bartlett, W. P. 2013. Decentralisation and Local Development in South East Europe. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Blank, J. L. and V. G. Valdmanis. 2010. “Environmental Factors and Productivity on Dutch Hospitals: A Semi-Parametric Approach.” Health Care Management Science 13(1), 27 – 34.

Byrnes, J., L. Crase, B. Dollery and R. Villano. 2010. “The Relative Economic Efficiency of Urban Water Utilities in Regional New South Wales and Victoria.” Resource and Energy Economics 32(3), 439 – 455.

Deng, Q., X. Jiang, Q. Cui and L. Zhang. 2015. “Strategic Design of Cost Savings Guarantee in Energy Performance Contracting under Uncertainty.” Applied Energy, 13968-80. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.11.027.

De Witte, K. and Geys, B., 2012. “Citizen coproduction and efficient public good provision: Theory and evidence from local public libraries,” Discussion Papers, Research Professorship & Project “The Future of Fiscal Federalism” SP II 2012 – 108, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).

Gaebler, L. R. 1971. “Population Size as a Determinant of City Expenditures and Employment: Some Further Evidence.” Land Economics 47(2), 130 – 138.

Gellén, M. 2012. “Does Centralization Serve Efficiency? De-Agencification in Hungary.” The NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy.5 (2). 67 – 87.

Hammerschmid, G., S. Van de Walle and V. Stimac. 2013. “Internal and External Use of Performance Information in Public Organizations: Results from International Survey.” Public Money & Management 33(4), 261 – 268.

Kuhlmann, S. and T. Jäkel. 2013. “Competing, Collaborating or Controlling? Comparing Benchmarking in European Local Government.” Public Money & Management 33(4), 269 – 276.

Kuhlmann, S. and P. Fedele.2010 “New Public Management in Continental Europe, Local Government Organization in Germany, France and Italy from a Comparative Perspective.” In Wollman H. and Marcou G. The Provision of Public Services in Europe. Cheltenham Glos. Edward Edgar Publishing.

Lee, P., P. Lam and W. Lee. 2015. “Risks in Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) Projects.” Energy & Buildings, 92116-127. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.01.054.

Magd, H. and A. Curry. 2003. “Benchmarking: Achieving Best Value in Public-Sector Organisations.” Benchmarking 10(3), 261 – 286.

Matějová, L., M. Plaček, M. Křápek, M. Půček and F. Ochrana. 2014. “Economies of Scale: Empirical Evidence from the Czech Republic.” In Danuše Nerudova (ed.). Procedia Economics and Finance: 17th International Conference Enterprise and Competitive Environment 2014. 1st edn. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Bv, 403 – 411.

Meričková, B., M. Šumpíková and P. Rousek. 2009. “Benchmarking na úrovni miestnej samosprávy: vybrané problémy” [Benchmarking at the level of local government: Selected issues]. In Květa Kubátová. Teoretické a praktické aspekty veřejných financí [Theoretical and practical aspects of public finance]. Praha: Nakladatelství Oeconomica, 1 – 15.

Meričková, B., Nemec, J. and Vozárová, Z. 2012. “Management of contracting public services and its quality in Slovakia.” The NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy.5 (1). 55 – 74.

Montén, A. and C. Thater. 2011. “Determinants of Efficiency in Child-Care Provision.” Finanz Archiv: Public Finance Analysis 67(4), 378 – 403.

Musgrave, R. and P. Musgrave. 1989. Public Finance in Theory and Practice. 5th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Nail, M., D. Anderson and J. Comerford. 2004. “If Energy Performance Contracting Is So Good Why Aren’t More Agencies Using It?” Journal of Housing & Community Development 61(4), 26 – 30.

Nemec, J., B. Meričková and M. Fantová-Šumpíková. 2011. “Is the Estonian Benchmarking Really Better? The Impacts of Research Methodology on Research Results.” Public Management Review 13(4), 539 – 549.

Nemec, J., B. Meričková and F. Ochrana. 2008. “Introducing Benchmarking in the Czech Republic and Slovakia: Processes, Problems and Lessons.” Public Management Review 10(5), 673 – 684.

Nemec, J., B. Mikušová Meričkováa and M. Grega. 2014. “Contracting, Outsourcing, Procurement: Selected Factors Limiting their Success in the CEE Region.” Paper presented at XVIII IRSPM Conference, 9 – 11 April, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.

Nenadál, J., D. Vykydal and P. Halfarová. 2011. Benchmarking mýty a skutečnost [Benchmarking myths and reality]. Praha: Management Press.

Oates, W. E. 1999. “An Essay on Fiscal Federalism.” Journal of Economic Literature 37(3), 1120 – 1149.

Oates, W. E. 1977. “An Economist’s Perspective on Fiscal Federalism.” In W. E. Oates. The Political Economy of Fiscal Federalism. Lexington, MA: Heath – Lexington, 3 – 30.

Oates, W. E. 1972. Fiscal Federalism. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

OECD. 2011. “Education at a Glance.” Available at (last accessed September 7, 2014).

Palermo, F. 2013. Regional Dynamics in Central and Eastern Europe: New Approaches to Decentralization. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Picazo-Tadeo, A. J., F. González-Gómez and F. J. Sáez-Fernández. 2009. “Accounting for Operating Environments in Measuring Water Utilities’ Managerial Efficiency.” The Service Industries Journal 29(6), 761 – 773.

Plaček, M., Půček, M. and Jetmar, M. 2014. “Collaborative benchmarking of municipalities in the Czech republic: present experience.” The NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy. 7 (1): 63 – 83.

P Squared Group, LLC. 2008. Heating with Biomass: A Feasibility Study of Wisconsin Schools Heated with Wood. Madison, Wisconsin: P Squared Group LLC and Biomass Energy Resource Center.

Půček, M. 2014. “Vedou vyšší výdaje na úředníka k nižšímu riziku korupce? (Analýza českých krajů)” [Do higher expenditures per official result in lower risk of corruption? (Analysis of Czech regions]. Ekonomický časopis 2(62), 150 – 166.

Půček, M. and F. Ochrana. 2014. “Theory and Practice of the Public Sector Savings: The Case of Czech Regions.” Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences 42E, 203 – 224.

Search I, II. 2014. “School Environment and Respiratory Health of Children (Ministero dell’Ambiente Edellatutela del Territorio e del Mare).” Regional Environmental Center. Available at (last accessed September 7, 2014).

Špaček, D. 2014.“Coordination of and through E-Government: The Case of the Czech Republic.” The NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy.7 (1). 83 – 106.

Tiebout, M. C. 1956. “A Pure Theory of Local Expenditure.” Journal of Political Economy 64, 416 – 424.

Vancauwenberghe, G., Crompvoets, J. and Bouckaert, G. 2011. “Interorganizational Information Sharing as a Driver of Change in Public Administration.” The NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy.3 (2). 87 – 106.

Walter, M. and A. Cullmann. 2008. “Potential Gains from Mergers in Local Public Transport: An Efficiency Analysis Applied to Germany.” Discussion papers 832. Berlin: German Institute for Economic Research.

Zahradník, P. and D. Koppitz. 2012. The Assessment Paper. Under the assignment of: Transfer of Czech knowledge in support of local government association of Macedonia and Kosovo to strengthen capacities for policy advocacy for improving/establishing fiscal incentives for energy efficiency measures in public schools. Praha: Mepco.

Zahradník, P., M. Zajíček and D. Koppitz. 2013a. Czech Experience with Financial Support of Energy-Efficient Measures Based on an EU Background as An Inspiration and Recommendation for Macedonia, Moldova and Kosovo. Praha: Mepco.

Zahradník, P., M. Zajíček and D. Koppitz. 2013b. Analyst Report. Within the assignment: Transfer of Czech knowledge in support of local government association of Macedonia and Kosovo to strengthen capacities for policy advocacy for improving/establishing fiscal incentives for energy efficiency measures in public schools. Mepco. Praha.

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.60

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.234
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.285


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 134 134 14
PDF Downloads 33 33 4