The Influence of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Climate Impact of Concrete Structures Exposed to Chlorides

Open access

Abstract

Addition of fly ash or GGBS in concrete has shown to increase the durability and thus the service life of concrete structures exposed to chlorides. Currently, the durability relies on regulations, which beside a minimum cover thickness also put constraint on amount and type of SCM in different environments. Swedish regulations do not, however, consider the actual durability of different binders. As a consequence, a LCA might be misleading. This paper investigates the climate impact of concrete with SCM in chloride environment. Current prescriptive design approach is compared with a performance based service life approach and applied to bridge parts.

1. Trafikverket: “Klimatkrav i byggprojekt - ett viktigt steg mot klimatneutral infrastruktur,” http://www.trafikverket.se/om-oss/nyheter/Nationellt/2016-02/klimatkrav-i-byggprojekt---ett-viktigt-steg-mot-klimatneutral-infrastruktur/, accessed 2017. (In Swedish.)

2. Du G: “Life cycle assessment of bridges, model development and case studies,” Doctoral thesis, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil & Architectural Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden, 2015, 151 pp.

3. Müller H, Haist M & Vogel M: “Assessment of the Sustainability Potential of Concrete and Concrete Structures Considering their Environmental Impact, Performance and Lifetime,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 67, 2014, pp 321-337.

4. Racutanu G: The Real Service Life of Swedish Road Bridges - A Case Study, Doctoral thesis. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2001.

5. Mattsson HÅ: “Integrated Bridge Maintenance - Evaluation of a pilot project and future perspectives,” Doctoral thesis. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil & Architectural Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden, 2008.

6. Safi M: “Life-Cycle Costing: Applications and Implementations in Bridge Investment and Management,” Doctoral thesis, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil & Architectural Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden, 2013.

7. Veganzones J, Sundquist H, Pettersson L & Karoumi R: “Life-Cycle Cost analysis as a tool in the developing process for new bridge edge beam solutions,” Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, Vol. 49, 2015, pp 1737-17746.

8. Tang L, Utgennant P & Boubitas D: “Durability and Service Life Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Structures,” Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society, Vol 43, 2015.

9. Tang L & Löfgren I: “Evaluation of Durability of Concrete with Mineral Additions with regard to Chloride-Induced Corrosion,” Report No. 2016-4, Chalmers University of Technology, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2016.

10. Streblow HH: “Mechanisms of pitting corrosion, Corrosion mechanism in theory in practice,” 2nd edition (P. Marcus), Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA, 2002.

11. Arya C, Buenfeld NR & Newman JB: “Factors Influencing chloride binding in concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, 20(2), 1990, pp 291-300.

12. Nilsson LO, Poulsen E, Sandberg P, Sorensen HE & Klinghoffer O: “Chloride penetration into concrete – state of the art: Transport processes, corrosion initiation, test methods and prediction models,” HETEK Report No. 53, Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1996.

13. Tuutti K: “Corrosion of steel in concrete,” CBI research FO 4:82, Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, 1982.

14. Byfors K: “Influence of silica fume and flyash on chloride diffusion and pH values in cement paste”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 17, 1987, pp. 115-130.

15. Angst U, Elsener B, Larsen CK & Vennesland Ø: “Critical chloride content in reinforced concrete – a review,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 39 (12), 2009, pp 1122-1138.

16. Khan MI: “Nanostructure and microstructure of cement concrete incorporating multicementitious composites,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2141, Washington D.C., 2010, pp. 21-27.

17. Shi X & Xie N: Fortune, K. & Gong, J.: “Durability of steel reinforced concrete in chloride environments: An overview,” Construction and Building Materials, 2012, pp 125-138.

18. Fib bulletin 34: “Model code for service life design”, fédération internationale du béton (fib), Lausanne, Switzerland, 2006.

19. SS-ISO 16204:2012: “Durability – Service life design of concrete structures,” Swedish Standards Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, 2015.

20. CEN: “Concrete – Specification, performance, production and conformity EN 206:2013, European committee for standardization,” Brussels, Belgium, 2013.

21. SS 137003:2015: “Concrete – Application of SS-EN 206 in Sweden,” Swedish Standards Institute, Stockholm, Sweden 2015.

22. Boverket: “Boverkets byggregler - EKS 10,” Boverket, Karlskrona, Sweden 2016. (In Swedish).

23. Tang L, Utgenannt P & Boubitsas D: “Durability and Service Life Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Structures,” Journal of the Chinese Ceramics Society, 2015, pp 1408-1412.

24. Boubitsas D, Tang L & Utgenannt P: “Chloride Ingress in Concrete Exposed to Marine Environment - Field data up to 20 years’ exposure,” CBI Report to SBUF Project 12684, Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden., 2014.

25. Löfgren I, Esping O & Lindvall A: “The influence of carbonation and age on salt frost scaling of concrete with mineral addition,” Proceedings, International RILEM Conference on Materials, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 22-24 August 2016.

26. CEN: “Sustainability of Construction Works – Environmental Product Declarations – Core Rules for the Product Category of Construction Products EN 15804, European committee for standardization,”, Brussels, Belgium, 2012.

27. Wernet G, Bauer C, Steubing B, Reinhard J, Moreno-Ruiz E & Weidema B: “The ecoinvent database version 3 (part I): overview and methodology,”. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, [online] 21(9), pp.1218–1230. 2016. Available at: <http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11367-016-1087-8>.

28. Personal communication with Merox AB, 2012.

29. Personal communication with Thomas Concrete Group, 2016.

30. Svensk Fjärrvärme: Fjärrvärmestatistik, https://www.energiforetagen.se/statistik/fjarrvarmestatistik/tillford-energi/, 2014.

31. Network for Transport Measures: NTMcalc – Calculation of Environmental Impact, https://www.transportmeasures.org/en/, accessed 2016.

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 59 59 14
PDF Downloads 45 45 11