Plants have evolved to live in environments where they are often exposed to different stress factors. Being sessile, they have developed specific mechanisms that allow them to detect precisely environmental changes and respond to complex conditions, minimizing damage while conserving valuable resources for growth and reproduction. The cell wall polysaccharide β-D-glucan observed in some species of Poales can determine responses to various environmental factors in specific plant developmental stages. It is located in the outer epidermal layer, at the place of stress attack and therefore its metabolism could relate to response of plant to environmental factors within moderate, physiological range. Putative protective role of β-D-glucan during heat stress was indicated through naked oats with higher content of β-D-glucan. It appeared that oats with higher β-D-glucan content are better adapted to stress conditions. The presented article discusses the β-D-glucan as a possible protective mechanism in oat during (heat) stress conditions.
BUTT, M.S., TAHIR-NADEEM, M., KHAN, M.K.I., SHABIR, R., BUTT, M.S.: Oat: Unique among the cereals. Eur. J. Nutr., 47, 2008, 68-79.
CARPITA, N.C., TIERNEY, M., CAMPBELL, M.: Molecular biology of the plant cell wall: Searching for the genes that define structure, architecture, and dynamics. Plant Mol. Biol., 47, 2001, 1-5.
DUPONT, F.M., ALTENBACH, S.B.: Molecular and biochemical impacts of environmental factors on wheat grain development and protein synthesis. J. Cereal Sci., 38, 2003, 133-146.
EHRENBERGEROVÁ, J., VACULOVÁ, K., PSOTA, V., HAVLOVÁ, P., ŠERHANTOVÁ, V.: Effects of cropping system and genotype on variability in important phytonutrients content of the barley grain. Plant Soil Environ., 49, 2003, 443-450.
FARROKHI, N., BURTON, R.A., BROWNFIELD, L., HRMOVA, M., WILSON, S.M., BACIC, A., FINCHER, G.B.: Plant cell wall biosynthesis: genetic, biochemical and functional genomics approaches to the identification of key genes. Plant Biotechnol. J., 4, 2006, 145-167.
FASTNAUGHT, C.: Barley fibre. In: CHO, S.S., DRECHER, M.L. (Eds.), Handbook of dietary fibre, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001, 519-542.
FAST SEEFELDT, H., VAN DEN BERGB, F., KÖCKENBERGER, W., BALLING ENGELSEN, S., WOLLENWEBER, B.: Water mobility in the endosperm of high beta-glucan barley mutants as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Magn. Reson. Imaging, 25, 2007, 425-432.
FINCHER, G.B.: Revolutionary times in our understanding of cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in the grasses. Plant Physiol., 149, 2009, 27-37.
GÜLER, M.: Barley grain β-glucan content as affected by nitrogen and irrigation. Field Crop Res., 84, 2003, 335-340.
HAVRLENTOVÁ, M., KRAIC, J.: Content of beta-D-glucan in cereal grains. J. Food Nutr. Res., 45, 2006, 97-103.
HOLTHAUS, J.F., HOLLAND, J.B., WHITE, P.J., FREY, K.J.: Inheritance of β-glucan content of oat grain. Crop Sci., 36, 1996, 567-572.
HOSON, T.: Apoplast as the site of response to environmental signals. J. Plant Res., 111, 1998, 167-177.
HOSON, T.: Physiological functions of plant cell coverings. J. Plant Res., 115, 2002, 277-282.
HRMOVA, M., FINCHER, G.B.: Structure-function relationship of β-D-glucan endoand exohydrolases from higher plants. Plant Mol. Biol., 47, 2001, 73-91.
INOUHE, M., MCCLELLAN, M., NEVINS, D.: Developmental regulation of polysaccharide metabolism and growth in the primary cell walls of maize. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 21, 1997, 21-28.
MACNICOL, P.K., JACOBSEN, J.V., KEYS, M.M., STUART, I.: Effects of heat and water stress on malt quality and grain parameters of Schooner barley grown in cabinets. J. Cereal Sci., 18, 1993, 61-68.
MANTOVANI, M.S., BELLINI, M.F., PEDRO, J., OLIVEIRA, A.R.J., SILVA, A.F., RIBEIRO, L.R.: Beta-glucans in promoting health: prevention against mutation and cancer. Mutation Res., 658, 2008, 154-161.
MCCLEARY, B.V., CODD, R.: Measurement of (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan in barley and oats: A streamlined enzymatic procedure. J. Sci. Food Agric., 55, 1991, 303-312.
OLIVEIRA, L.C., OLIVEIRA, M., MENEGHETTI, V.L., MAZZUTTI, S., COLLA, L.M., ELIAS, M.C., GUTKOSKI, L.C.: Effect of drying temperature on quality of β-glucan in white oat grains. Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., 32, 2012, 793-797.
PETERSON, D.M., WESENBERG, D.M., BURRUP, D.E.: β-Glucan content and its relationship to agronomic characteristics in elite oat germplasm. Crop Sci., 35, 1995, 965-970.
PIRŠELOVÁ, B., MATUŠÍKOVÁ, I.: Callose: the plant cell wall polysaccharide with multiple biological functions. Acta Physiol. Plant., 35(3), 2013, 635-644.
REDONDO-GOMEZ, S: Abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants. In: ROUT, G.R., DAS, A.B. (Eds.), Molecular Stress Physiology of Plants, Springer India, New Delhi, 2013, 1-20.
ROSE, J.K., BRAAM, J., FRY, S.C., NISHITANI, K.: The XTH family of enzymes involved in xyloglucan endotransglucosylation and endohydrolysis: current perspectives and a new unifying nomenclature. Plant Cell Physiol., 43, 2002, 1421-1435.
SAVIN, R., STONE, P.J., NICOLAS, M.E., WARDLAW, I.F.: Effects of heat stress and moderately high temperature on grain growth and malting quality of barley. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 48, 1997, 615-624.
SAVIN, R., MOLINA-CANO, J.L.: Changes in malting quality and its determinants in response to abiotic stresses. In: SLAFER, G.A., MOLINA-CANO, J.L., SAVIN, R., ARAUS, J.L., ROMAGOSA, I. (Eds.), Barley science-recent advances from molecular biology to agronomy of yield and quality, Food Products Press, New York, 2002, 523-550.
STACK, H.M., KEARNEY, N., STANTON, C., FITZGERALD, G.F., ROSS, R.P.: Association of beta-glucan endogenous production with increased stress tolerance of intestinal Lactobacilli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 76, 2010, 500-507.
STN 461011-14 [Slovak technical norm]: Skúšanie obilnín, strukovín a olejnín. Skúšanie obilnín. Časť 14: Stanovenie energie klíčenia a citlivosti na vodu sladovníckeho jačmeňa. STN. Bratislava, 2005. (in slovak).
SUNDARESHA, S., MANOJ KUMAR, A., ROHINI, S., MATH, S.A., KESHAMMA, E., CHANDRASHEKAR, S.C., UDAYAKUMAR, M.: Enhanced protection against two major fungal pathogens of groundnut, Cercospora arachidicola and Aspergillus flavus in transgenic groundnut over-expressing a tobacco β 1-3 glucanase. Eur. J. Plant Pathol., 126, 2010, 497-508.
VIRKKI, L., JOHANSSON, L., YLINEN, M., MAUNU, S., EKHOLM, P.: Structural characterization of water-insoluble nonstarchy polysaccharides of oats and barley. Carbohydr. Polym., 59, 2005, 357-366.
YALCIN, E., ÇELIK, S., AKAR, T., SAYIM, I., KÖKSEL, H.: Effect of genotype and environmental on β-glucan and dietary fiber contents of hull-less barleys grown in Turkey. Food Chem., 101, 2007, 171-176.