Degradation of Synthetic Dyes by Laccases – A Mini-Review

Open access


Laccases provide a promising future as a tool to be used in the field of biodegradation of synthetic dyes with different chemical structures. These enzymes are able to oxidize a wide range of phenolic substrates without the presence of additional co-factors. Laccases have been confirmed for their potential of synthetic dye degradation from wastewater and degradation products of these enzymatic reactions become less toxic than selected dyes. This study discusses the potential of laccase enzymes as agents for laccase-catalyzed degradation in terms of biodegradation efficiency of synthetic dyes, specifically: azo dyes, triphenylmethane, indigo and anthraquinone dyes. Review also summarizes the laccase-catalyzed degradation mechanisms of the selected synthetic dyes, as well as the degradation products and the toxicity of the dyes and their degradation products.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • ADNAN L.A. SATHISHKUMAR P. YUSOFF A.R.M. HADIBARATA T.: Metabolites characterisation of laccase mediated Reactive Black 5 biodegradation by fast growing ascomycete fungus Trichoderma atroviride F03. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation 104 2015 274-282.

  • AFREEN S. ANWER R. SINGH R.K. FATMA T.: Extracellular laccase production and its optimization from Arthrospira maxima catalyzed decolorization of synthetic dyes. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 2016 (in press).

  • AITKEN D.M. MASSEY I.J. CHEN T. HECK P.E.: Characterization of reaction products from the enzyme catalyzed oxidation of phenolic pollutants. Water Res. 28 1994 1879-1889.

  • AMIN K.A. ABDEL H.H. ABD E.A.H.: Effect of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 48 2010 2994-2999.

  • AXON A. MAY F.E. GAUGHAN L.E. WILLIAMS F.M. BLAIN P.G. WRIGHT M.C.: Tartrazine and sunset yellow are xenoestrogens in a new screening assay to identify modulators of human oestrogen receptor transcriptional activity. Toxicology 298 2012 40-51.

  • AZMI W. SANI R.K. BANERJEE U.C.: Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 22 1998 185-191.

  • BALDRIAN P.: Fungal laccases - occurrence and properties. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 30 2006 215-242.

  • BAUGHMAN G.L. WEBER E.J.: Transformation of dyes and related compounds in anoxic sediment: kinetics and products. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28 1994 267-276.

  • BIBI I. BHATTI H.N. ASGHER M.: Comparative study of natural and synthetic phenolic compounds as efficient laccase mediators for the transformation of cationic dye. Biochem. Eng. J. 56 2011 225-231.

  • BOLLAG J.M. SHUTTLEWORTH K.L. ANDERSON D.H.: Laccase mediated detoxification of phenolic compounds. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54 1998 3086-3091.

  • CAMPOS R. KANDELBAUER A. ROBRA K.H. CAVACO-PAULO A. GUBITZ G.M.: Indigo degradation with purified laccases from Trametes hirsuta and Sclerotium rolfsii. J. Biotechnol. 89 2001 131-139.

  • CANAS A.I. CAMARERO S.: Laccases and their natural mediators: biotechnological tools for sustainable eco-friendly processes. Biotechnol. Adv. 26 2010 694-705.

  • CASAS N. PARELLA T. VINCENT T. CAMINAL G. SARRA M.: Metabolites from the biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes by Trametes versicolor or laccase. Chemosphere 75 2009 1344-1349.

  • CHEN H.: Recent advances in azo dye degrading enzyme research. Curr. Protein Pept. Sci. 7 2006 101-111.

  • CHEN S.H. TING A.S.Y.: Biodecolorization and biodegradation potential of recalcitrant triphenylmethane dyes by Coriolopsis sp. isolated from compost. J. Environ. Manage. 150 2015 274-280.

  • CHHABRA M. MISHRA S. SREEKRISHNAN T.: Laccase/mediator assisted degradation of triarylmethane dyes in a continuous membrane reactor. J. Biotechnol. 10 2009 69-78.

  • CHIVUKULA M. RENGANATHAN V.: Phenolic azo dye oxidation by laccase from Pyricularia oryzae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34 1995 4374-4377.

  • CHMELOVÁ D. ONDREJOVIČ M.: Effect of metal ions on triphenylmethane dye decolorization by laccase from Trametes versicolor. Nova Biotechnol. Chim. 14 2015 191-200.

  • DAFALE N. RAO N.N. MESHRAM S.U. WATE S.R.: Decolorization of azo dyes and simulated dye bath wastewater using acclimatized microbial consortiumbiostimulation and halo tolerance. Bioresour. Technol. 99 2008 2552-2558.

  • DAI J. WANG H. CHI H. WANG Y. ZHAO J.: Immobilization of laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus on magnetic separable SiO2 support and excellent activity toward azo dye decolorization. J. Environ. Chem. Engineering. 4 2016 2585-2591.

  • DA SILVA M.R. DE SA L.R.V. RUSSO C. SCIO E. FERREIRA-LEITAO V.S.: The use of HRP in decolorization of reactive dyes and toxicological evaluation of their products. Enzyme Res. 2010 2010 703824-703831.

  • DAVIES G.J. DUCROS V.: Laccase. Part 6. Copper multicopper enzymes. In: Handbook of metalloproteins. John Wiley & Son New York 2006 DOI: 10.1002/0470028637.met199.

  • DU L.N. LI G. ZHAO Y.H. XU H.K. WANG Y. ZHOU Y. WANG L.: Efficient metabolism of the azo dye methyl orange by Aeromonas sp. strain DH-6: characteristics and partial mechanism. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation 105 2015 66-72.

  • DURAN N. ROSA M.A. D'ANNIBALE A. GIANFREDA L.: Applications of laccases and tyrosinases (phenoloxidases) immobilized on different supports: a review. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 31 2002 907-931.

  • DURÃO P. BENTO I. FERNANDES A.T. MELO E.P. LINDLEY P.F. MARTINS L.O.: Perturbations of the T1 copper site in the CotA laccase from Bacillus subtilis: structural biochemical enzymatic and stability studies. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 11 2006 514-526.

  • FABBRINI M. GALLI C. GENTILI P.: Comparing the catalytic efficiency of some mediators of laccase. J. Mol. Cat. B Enz. 16 2002 231-240.

  • FISCHER A.R. WERNER P. GOSS K.U.: Photodegradation of malachite green and malachite green carbinol under irradiation with different wavelength ranges. Chemosphere 2011 82 210-214.

  • FORGACS E. CSERHÁTI T. OROS G.: Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review. Environ. Int. 30 2004 953-971.

  • FOROOTANFAR H. MOEZZI A. AGHAIE-KHOZANI M. MAHMOUDJANLOU Y. AMERI A. NIKNEJAD F. FARAMARZI M.A.: Synthetic dye decolorization by three sources of fungal laccase. Iran. J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng. 9 2012 1-10.

  • GIARDINA P. FARACO V. PEZZELLA C. PISCITELLI A. VANHULLE S. SANNIA G.: Laccases: a never-ending story. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 67 2010 369-385.

  • GOPINATHAN R. KANHERE J. BANERJEE J.: Effect of malachite green toxicity on non target soil organisms. Chemosphere 120 2015 637-644.

  • HADIBARATA T. YUSOFF A.R.M. AYU R.: Decolorization and metabolism of anthraquinone-type dye by laccase of white-rot fungi Polyporus sp. S133. Water Soil Air Poll. 223 2011 933-941.

  • JOHNOSON D.L. THOMSON J.L. BRINKMANN S.M. SCHULLER K.A. MARTIN L.L.: Electrochemical characterization of purified Rhus vernicifera laccase: voltammetric evidence for a sequential four-electron transfer. Biochemistry 2 2003 10229-10237.

  • KAGALKAR A.N. JAGTAP U.B. JADHAV J.P. GOVINDWAR S.P. BAPAT S.A.: Studies on phytoremediation potentiality of Typhonium flagelliforme for the degradation of Brilliant Blue R. Planta 232 2010 271-285.

  • KALYANI D.C. PATIL P.S. JADHAV J.P. GOVINDWAR S.P.: Biodegradation of reactive textile dye Red BLI by an isolated bacterium Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. Bioresour. Technol. 99 2008 4635-4641.

  • KLONOWSKA A. GAUDIN C. FOURNEL A. ASSO M. LE PETIT J. GIORGI M. TRON T.: Characterization of a low redox potential laccase from the basidiomycete C30. Eur. J. Biochem. 269 2002 6119-6125.

  • KRUUS K. KIISKINEN L.L. SALOHEIMO M. HAKLINEN N. ROUVINEN J. PAANANEN A. LINDER M. VIIKARI L.: A novel laccase from the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 59 2002 198-204.

  • KUMAR V.V. SATHYASELVABALA V. PREKUMAR M.P. SIVANESAN S.: Biochemical characterization of three phase partitioned laccase and its application in decolorization and degradation of synthetic dyes. J. Mol. Cat. B Enz. 74 2012 63-72.

  • LI H. WEBB S.P. IVANIC J. JENSEN J.H.: Determinants of the relative reduction potentials of type-1 copper sites in proteins. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 126 2004 8010-8019. MATE D.M. ALCALDE M.: Laccase engineering: from rational design to directed evolution. Biotechnol. Adv. 33 2015 25-40.

  • MENG Q. YAN W. YU M. HUANG D.: A study of third-order nonlinear optical properties for anthraquinone derivatives. Dyes Pigm. 56 2003 145-149.

  • MOREIRA S. MILAGRES A.M.F. MUSSATTO S.I.: Reactive dyes and textile effluent decolorization by a mediator system of salt-tolerant laccase from Peniophora cinerea. Sep. Purif. Technol. 135 2014 183-189.

  • MOT A.C. SILAGHI-DUMITRESCU R.: Laccases: complex architectures for oneelectron oxidations. Biochemistry (Mosc.) 77 2012 1395-1407.

  • NAM S. RENGANATHAN V.: Non-enzymatic reduction of azo dyes by NADH. Chemosphere 40 2000 351-357.

  • NATH P.P. SARKAR K. MONDAL M. PAUL G.: Metanil Yellow impairs the estrous cycle physiology and ovarian folliculogenesis in female rats. Environ. Toxicol. 2015 DOI: 10.1002/tox.22205.

  • OSMA J.F. TOCA HERRERA J.L. RODRÍGUEZ COUTO S.: Transformation pathway of Remazol Brilliant Blue R by immobilised laccase. Bioresour. Technol. 101 2010 8509-8514.

  • PANDEY A. SINGH P. IYENGAR L.: Bacterial decolorization and degradation of azo dyes. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation 59 2007 73-84.

  • PEREIRA L. COELHO A.V. VIEGAS C.A. CORREIA DOS SANTOS M.M. ROBALO M.P. MARTINS L.O.: Enzymatic biotransformation of the azo dye Sudan Orange G with bacterial CotA-laccase. J. Biotechnol. 139 2009 68-77.

  • PLATZEK T. LANG C. GROHMANN G. GI U.S. BALTES W.: Formation of a carcinogenic aromatic amine from an azo dye by human skin bacteria in vitro. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 18 1999 552-559.

  • POLAK J. JAROSZ-WILKOLAZKA A.: Fungal laccases as green catalysts for dye synthesis. Process Biochem. 47 2012 1295-1307.

  • RAJAGURU P. FAIRBAIRN L.J. ASHBY J. WILLINGTON M.A. TURNER S. WOOLFORD L.A. CHINNASAMY N. RAFFERTY J.A.: Genotoxicity studies on the azo dye Direct Red 2 using the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Mutat. Res. 444 1999 175-180.

  • REINHAMMAR B.R.M.: Oxidation-reduction potentials of the electron acceptors in laccases and stellacyanin. BBA-Bioenergetics 275 1972 245-259.

  • ROBINSON T. MCMULLAN G. MARCHANT R. NIGAM P.: Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresour. Technol. 77 2001 247-255.

  • RODRÍGUEZ COUTO S. TOCA HERRERA J.L.: Industrial and biotechnological applications of laccases: a review. Biotechnol. Adv. 24 2006 500-513.

  • SADHASIVAM S. SAVITHA S. SWAMINATHAN K. LIN F.H.: Production purification and characterization of mid-redox potential laccase from a newly isolated Trichoderma harzianum WL1. Process Biochem. 2008 43 736-742.

  • SATHISHKUMAR P. BALAN K. PALVANNAN T. KAMALA-KANNAN S. OH B.T. RODRÍGUEZ-COUTO S.: Efficiency of Pleurotus florida laccase on decolorization and detoxification of the reactive dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) under optimized conditions. Clean (Weinh) 41 2013 665-672.

  • SCHNEIDER P. CASPERSEN M.B. MONDORF K. HALKIER T. SKOV L.K. ØSTERGAAT P.R. BROWN K.M. BROWN S.H. XU F.: Characterization of a Coprinus cinereus laccase. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 25 1999 502-508.

  • SHARMA K.K. SHRIVASTAVA B. SASTRY V.R.B. SEHGAL N. KUHAD R.CH.:Middle redox potential laccase from Ganoderma sp.: its application in improvement of feed for monogastric animals. Sci. Rep. 1299 2013 1-9.

  • SHLEEV S. JAROSZ-WILKOLAZKA A. KHALUNINA A. MOZOROVA O. YAROPOLOV A. RUZGAS T. GORTON L.: Direct electron transfer reaction of laccase from different origins on carbon electrodes. Bioelectrochem. 65 2005 115-125.

  • SHLEEV S. NIKITINA O. CHRISTENSON A. REIMANN C.T. YAROPOLOV A.I. RUZGAS T. GORTON L.: Characterization of two new multiforms of Trametes pubescens laccase. Bioorg. Chem. 2007 35 35-49.

  • SHLEEV S.V. MOZOROVA O.V. NIKITA O.V. GORSHINA E.S. RUSINOVA T.V. SEREZHENKOV V.A. BURBAEV D.S. GAZARYAN I.G. YAROPOLOV A.I.: Comparison of physico-chemical characteristics of four laccases from different basidiomycetes. Biochimie 86 2004 693-703.

  • SI J. PENG F. CUI B.: Purification biochemical characterization and dye decolorization capacity of an alkali-resistant and metal-tolerant laccase from Trametes pubescens. Bioresour. Technol. 128 2013 49-57.

  • SINGH G. CAPALASH N. GOEL R. SHARMA P.: A pH-stable laccase from alkali-tolerant γ-proteobacterium JB: purification characterization and indigo carmine degradation. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 41 2007 794-799.

  • SRIVASTAVA S. SINHA R. ROY D.: Toxicological effects of malachite green. Aquat. Toxicol. 66 2004 319-329.

  • SUZUKI T. TIMOFEI S. KURUNCZI L. DIETZE U. SCHŰŰRMANN G.: Correlation of aerobic biodegradability of sulfonated azo dyes with the chemical structure. Chemosphere 45 2001 1-19.

  • TAUBER M.M. GUEBITZ G.M. REHOREK A.: Degradation of azo dyes by oxidative processes - laccase and ultrasound treatment. Bioresour. Technol. 99 2008 4213-4220.

  • TELKE A.A. GHODAKE G.S. KAYANI D.C. DHANVE R.S. GOVINDWAR S.P.: Biochemical characteristics of a textile dye degrading extracellular laccase from a Bacillus sp. ADR. Bioresour. Technol. 102 2011 1752-1756.

  • TELKE A.A. KADAM A.A. JAGTAP S.S. JADHAV J.P. GOVINDWAR S.P.: Biochemical characterization and potential for textile dye degradation of blue laccase from Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 15 2010 696-703.

  • TELKE A.A. KALYANI D.C. DAWKAR V.V. GOVINDWAR S.P.: Influence of organic and inorganic compounds on oxidoreductive decolorization of sulfonated azo dye C.I. Reactive Orange 16. J. Hazard. Mater. 172 2009 298-309.

  • WAN H. WENG S. LIANG S. LU Q. HE J.: Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of leucomalachite green administered orally to rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 49 2011 3031-3037.

  • WANG X. CHENG X. SUN D. QI H.: Biodecolorization and partial mineralization of Reactive Black 5 by a strain of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. J. Environ. Sci. 20 2008 1218-1225.

  • YANG J. YANG X. LIN Y. NG T.B. LIN J. YE X.: Laccase-catalyzed decolorization of malachite green: performance optimization and degradation mechanism. Plos One 28 2015 1-14.

  • YANG X.Q. ZHAO X.X. LIU C.Y. ZHENG Y. QIAN S.J.: Decolorization of azo triphenylmethane and anthraquinone dyes by a newly isolated Trametes sp. SQ01 and its laccase. Process Biochem. 44 2009 1185-1189.

  • YOUNES S.B. SAYADI S.: Detoxification of Indigo carmine using a combined treatment via a novel trimeric thermostable laccase and microbial consortium. J. Mol. Cat. B: Enz. 87 2013 62-68.

  • ZENG X. CAI Y. LIAO X. ZENG X. LUO S. ZHANG D.: Anthraquinone dye assisted the decolorization of azo dyes by a novel Trametes trogii laccase. Process Biochem. 47 2012 160-163.

  • ZENG X. CAI Y. LIAO X. ZENG X. LI W. ZHANG D.: Decolorization of synthetic dyes by crude laccase from a newly isolated Trametes trogii strain cultivated on solid agro-industrial residue. J. Hazard. Mater. 187 2011 517-525.

  • ZHENG F. CUI B.K. WU X.J. MENG G. LIU H.X. SI J.: Immobilization of laccase onto chitosan beads to enhance its capacity to degrade synthetic dyes. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation 110 2016 69-78.

  • ZHOU X. XIANG X.: Effect of different plants on azo-dye wastewater biodecolorization. Procedia Environ. Sci. 18 2013 540-546.

  • ZHUO R. HE F. ZHANG X. YANG Y.: Characterization of a yeast recombinant laccase rLAC-EN3-1 and its application in decolorizing synthetic dye with the coexistence of metal ions and organic solvents. Biochem. Eng. J. 93 2015 63-72.

  • ZIMBARDI A.L.R.L. CAMARGO R.F. CARLI S. NETO S.A. MELEIRO L.P. ROSA J.C. DE ANDRADE A.R. JORGE J.A. FURRIEL R.P.M.: A high redox potential laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15: potential application for dye decolorization. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17 2016 1-42.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.68

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.173
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.288

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 491 285 15
PDF Downloads 262 176 6