The Humulus lupulus L. is well known as necessary raw material for beer production. The main structural classes of chemical compounds identified from hop cones include terpenes, bitter acids, prenylated chalcones, and flavonol glycosides. They were subjects of presented work. The content of quercetin was found in the range 490 - 1092 μg/g and that of kaempferol from 218 to 568 μg/g of the dry hop cones. The content of isorhamnetin was very low in all varieties. From biological activities in vitro point of view, relative high level of inhibition activity was observed for six hop genotypes - Zlatan, Lučan, and the Oswald's clones 31, 70, 71, 72, 114 on both enzymes thrombin and urokinase, but without correlation to analyzed flavonols content. In spite of this, antioxidant activity, measured by both the BCLM and HPE methods, was found high and seem to be in correlation with content of analyzed flavonols. Particularly the Oswald's clone 114 expressed very potent biological activities. In general, obtained results indicate that hop cones are valuable material also for other application others than beer production.
ALEKSEEVA, M.A., ÉLLER, K.I., ARZAMASTSEV, A.P.: Determining polyphenolic components of common hop by reversed - phase HPLC. Pharm. Chem. J. 38, 2004, 687 - 689.
DI VITO, C., BERTONI, A., NALIN, M., SAMPIETRO, S., ZANFA, M., SINIGAGLIA, F.: The phytoestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin inhibits agonistdependent activation of human platelets. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1820, 2012, 1724-1733.
ERLANGER, B.F., KOKOWSKY, M., COHEN, W.: The preparation and properties of two new chromogenic substrates for trypsin. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 95, 1961, 271-278.
GEIGER, M., PRIGLINGER, U., GRIFFIN, J.H., BINDER, B.R.: Urinary protein C inhibitor. Glycosaminoglycans synthesized by the epithelial kidney cell line TCL 598 enhance its interaction with urokinase. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 1991, 11851-11857.
HERTOG, M.G.L., HOLLMAN, P.C.H., VENEMA, D.P.: Optimization of a quantitative HPLC determination of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids in vegetables and fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 1992, 1591 - 1598.
KROFTA, K., MIKYSKA, A., HASKOVA, D.: Antioxidant characteristics of hops and hop products. J. Inst. Brew. 114, 2008, 160-166.
LEITE, I.R., FARIA, J.R., MARQUEZ, L.D.S., REIS, M.H.M., DE RESENDE, M.M, RIBEIRO, E.J., CARDOSO, V.L.: Evaluation of hop extract as a natural antibacterial agent in contaminated fuel ethanol fermentations. Fuel Process.Technol. 106, 2013, 611-618.
LERMUSIEAU, G., LIÉGEOIS, G., COLLIN, S.: Reducing power of hop cultivars and beer ageing. Food Chem. 72, 2001, 413-418.
MAGALHÃES, P.J., VIEIRA, J.S., GONÇALVES, L.M., PACHECO, J.G., GUIDO, L.F., BARROS, A.A.: Isolation of phenolic compounds from hop extracts using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone: Characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J.Chromatogr. 1217, 2010, 3258-3268.
MALIAR, T., JEDINÁK, A., KADRABOVÁ, J., ŠTURDÍK, E.: Structural aspects of flavonoids as trypsin inhibitors. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 39, 2004, 241-248.
MIDDLETON, E., KANDASWAMI, C., THEOHARIDES, T.C.: The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer. Pharmacol. Rev. 52, 2000, 673-751.
NATARAJAN, P., KATTA, S., ANDREI, I., BABU RAO AMBATI, V., LEONIDA, M., HAAS, G.J.: Positive antibacterial co-action between hop (Humulus lupulus) constituents and selected antibiotics. Phytomedicine. 15, 2008, 194-201.
NESVADBA, V., KROFTA, K: Variability in the content of important compounds for pharmaceutical and breewing industries within hopgene pool. Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo) 55, 2009: 10-16.
NUUTILA, A.M., KAMMIOVIRTA, K., OKSMAN-CALDENTEY K.M.: Comparison of method for the hydrolysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids from onion and spinach for HPLC analysis. Food Chem. 76, 2002, 519 - 525.
OHSHIMA, H., YOSHIE, Y., AURIOL, S., GILIBERT, I.: Antioxidant and prooxidant actions of flavonoids: effects on DNA damage induced by nitric oxide, peroxynitrite and nitroxyl anion. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 25, 1998, 1057-1065.
ONAYA, J., KYOGASHIMA, M., SUNOSE, A., MIYAUCHI, S., MIZUNO, S., HORIE, K.: Effects of dermatan sulfate, a heparin cofactor II mediated thrombin inhibitor, on the endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation model in the rat: Comparison with low-molecular-weight heparin, nafamostat mesilate and argatroban. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 76, 1998, 397-404.
PICK, E., KEISARI, Y.: A simple colorimetric metod for the measurement of hydrogen peroxide produced by cells in culture. J. Immunol. Met. 38, 1980, 161-170.
PROESTOS, C., BOZIARIS, I.S., NYCHAS, G.J.E., KOMAITIS, M.: Analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids in Greek aromatic plants, Food Chem. 95, 2006, 664 - 671.
RAKATOARISON, D.A., GRESSIER, B., TROTIN, F., BRUNET, C., DINE, T., LUYCKS, M., VASSEUR, J., CAZIN, M., CAZIN, J.C., PINKAS, M.: Antioxidant activities of polyphenolic extracts from flowers, in vitro callus and cell suspension cultures of Crataegus monogyna. Pharmacol. 57, 1997, 60-63.
ROTHWELL, J.A., DAY, A.J., MORGAN, M.R.A.: Experimental Determination of Octanol - Water Partition Coefficients of Quercetin and Related Flavonoids. J.Agric Food Chem. 53, 2005, 4355 - 4360.
SCHMITT, M., HARBECK, M., THOMSSEN, C., WILHELM, O., MAGDOLEN, V., REUNING, U., ULM, K., HOFL, H., JANICKE, F., GRAEFF, H.: Clinical impact of the plasminogen activation system in tumor invasion and metastasis: prognostic relevance and target for therapy. Thromb. Haemost. 78, 1997, 285-296.
SEGAWA, S., YASUI, K., TAKATA, Y., KURIHARA, T., KANEDA, H., WATARI, J.: Flavonoid Glycosides Extracted from Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) as Inhibitors of Chemical Mediator Release from Human Basophilic KU812 Cells.Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70, 2006, 2990 - 2997.
SIVASOTHY, Y., SULAIMAN, S.F., OOI, K.L., IBRAHIM, H., AWANG, K.: Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of flavonoids and curcuminoids from Zingiber spectabile Griff. Food Control, 30, 2013, 714-720.
STALIKAS, C.D.: Extraction, separation, and detection methods for phenolic acids and flavonoids. J. Sep. Sci. 30, 2007, 3268 - 3295.
STEVANS, J.F., TAYLOR, A.W., DEINZER, M.L.: Quantitative Analysis of Xanthohumol and Related Prenylflavonoids in Hops and Beer by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A. 833, 1999, 97 -107.
TRONINA, T., BARTMAŃSKA, A., MILCZAREK, M., WIETRZYK, J., POPŁOŃSKI, J., RÓJ, E., HUSZCZA, E.: Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of glycosides obtained by biotransformation of xanthohumol. Bioorg.Med. Chem. Lett. 23, 2013, 1957-1960.
WAAGE, S.K., HEDIN, P.A.: Quercetin 3-O-galactosyl-(1 → 6)-glucoside, a compound from narrowleaf vetch with antibacterial activity. Phytochem. 24, 1985, 243-245.
WOJDYŁO, A., OSZMIAŃSKI, J., CZEMERYS, R.: Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs. Food Chem. 105, 2007, 940 - 949.
YAMAGUCHI, N., SATOH-YAMAGUCHI, K., ONO, M.: In vitro evaluation of antibacterial, anticollagenase, and antioxidant activities of hop components (Humulus lupulus) addressing acne vulgaris. Phytomedicine. 16, 2009, 369-376.
ZANOLI, P., ZAVATTI, M.: Pharmacognostic and pharmacological profile of Humulus lupulus L. J. Ethnopharmacol. 116, 2008, 383 - 396.