The realistic response of the steel frames cannot always be investigated with idealized rigid or articulated joints. For sideways loads, significant calculation errors may occur if the modeling of the joints does not take into account their most realistic behaviour. The use of semi-rigid joints, both in design and construction, can result in favourable structural properties in the case of steel frames, especially in seismic areas.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
 Frye M.J. Morris G.A.: Analysis of flexibly connected steel frames Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 2/3. (1975) 280-291. https://doi.org/10.1139/l75-026
 Kishi N. Chen W. F. Goto Y.: Effective length factor of columns in semirigid and unbraced frames. Journal of Structural Engineering 123/3. (1997) 313-320. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1997)123:3(313)
 Kim Y. Chen W. F.: Practical analysis for partially restrained frame design. Journal of Structural Engineering 124/7. (1998) 736-749. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1998)124:7(736)
 Goto Y. Miyashita S.: Classification system for rigid and semirigid connection. Journal of Structural Engineering - ASCE 124/7. (1998) 750-757. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1998)124:7(750)
 Richard R. M. Abbott B. J.: Versatile Elasto-Plastic Stress-Strain Formula. Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division 101/4. (1975) 511-515.
 EN 1993-1-1 (2005): Eurocode 3. Design of Steel Structures. Part I: General rules and rules for buildings. Comite European de Normalisation (CEN) Brussels Belgium 1992.
 American Institute of Steel Construction: Manual of steel construction: allowable stress design. Chicago 1989.
 Faella C. Piluso V. Rizzano G.: Structural Steel Semirigid Connections. CRC Press LLC Boca Raton 2000.
 Máthé A.: Nonlinear geometrical elastic analysis of semirigid connections. Phd thesis Technical University of Cluj-Napoca 2009.
 Alexa P. Máthé A.: Energy state of multi-story structures equipped with passive protection. In: International Colloquium on Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures (SDSS’2016) (Eds.: Dubina D. Ungureanu V.) Timisoara Romania 2016. 851-858.
 Hensmann J. S. Nethercot D. A.: Numerical study of unbraced composite frames: generation of data to validate use of the wind moment method of design. Journal of Constructional Steel Research 57/7. (2001) 791-809. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0143-974X(01)00008-6