A fully 3D numerical analysis of turbulent flow over a cluster of solar photovoltaic (PV) panels was performed in order to assess the total drag and lift forces, comparing the results with the values from the guidelines of the national standard. A Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) model was used in the numerical simulations, considering two acting directions of the wind along the length of the array (0 degree – front, and 180 degrees – reverse direction).
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