As popularity of eco-friendly products has increased over the past decade, brands utilize green advertising and position their products as green to appeal to the taste of environmentally conscious customers. Even though many customers are concerned about the state of environment, they are discouraged from purchasing eco-friendly products and engaging in other sustainable behaviors due to economic and social barriers. This research poses a question how marketing communication can capitalize on environmental concern to promote desired green behaviors by priming customers to think about their proenvironmental values and motivations to act green. To answer this question, we analyze over 1500 customer responses to marketing communications on social media. In this content analysis study we utilize logistic regression to discover which primers are the most effective at activating green behaviors. This research provides managerial implications helping marketing communicators employ effective primers that will generate desired customer behaviors.
1. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decisions Processes, 50(1), 179-211.
2. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equational modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Pyschological Bulletin, 103(1), 411-423.
3. Auger, P., & Devinney, T. M. (2007). Do what consumers say matter? The misalignment of preferences with unconstrained ethical intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 76(4), 361-383.
4. Banerjee, M., Capozzoli, M., McSweeney, L., & Sinha, D. (1999). Beyond Kappa: A Review of Interrater Agreement Measures. Canadian Journal of Statistics, 27(1), 3-23.
5. Banerjee, S. B., Gulas, C. S., & Iyer, E. S. (1995). Shades of green: a multidimensional analysis of environmental advertising. Journal of Advertising, 24(2), 21-31.
6. Bargh, J. A. (2006). What have we been priming all these years? On the development, mechanisms, and ecology of nonconscious social behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36(2), 147-168.
7. Batson, C. D., & Shaw, L. L. (1991). Evidence for altruism: Toward a pluralism of prosocial motives. Pyschological Inquiry, 2(2), 107-116.
8. Bazarova, N. N., Walther, J. B., & Poppy, L. M. (2012). Minority Influence in Virtual Groups: A Comparison of Four Theories of Minority Influence. Communication Research, 39(3), 295-316.
9. Bénabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2006). Incentives and Prosocial Behavior. The American Economic Review, 96 (5), 1652-1678.
10. Benedetto, G., Rugani, B., & Vazquez-Rowe, I. (2014). Rebound Effects Due to Economic Choices When Assessing the Environmental Sustainability of Wine. Food Policy, 49(1), 167-173.
11. Bennett, G., & Williams, F. (2011). Mainstream Green: Moving sustainability from niche to normal. New York: Ogilvy & Mather
12. Blengini, G. A., & Shields, D. J. (2010). Green labels and sustainability reporting: overview of the building products supply chain in Italy. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 21(4), 477-493.
13. Biswas, A., & Roy, M. (2015). Green products: an exploratory study on the consumer behaviour in emerging economies of the East. Journal of Cleaner Production, 87(1). 463-468.
14. Bodur, M., & Sarigöllü, E. (2005). Environmental Sensitivity in a Developing Country: Consumer Classification and Implications. Environment and Behavior, 37(4), 487-510.
15. Boztepe, A. (2012). Green Marketing and Its Impact on Consumer Buying Behavior. European Journal of Economic & Political Studies, 5(1), 5-21.
16. Brough, A. R., Wilkie, J. E B., Ma, J., Isaac, M. S., & Gal, D. (2016). Is Eco-Friendly Unmanly? The Green- Feminine Stereotype and Its Effect on Sustainable Consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 43(4), 567-582.
17. Budd, R. W., Thorp, R. K., & Donohew, L. (1967). Content Analysis of Communications. New York: Macmillan Co.
18. Carlson, L., Grove, S. J., Laczniak, R. N., & Kangun, N. (1996). Does environmental advertising reflect integrated marketing communications?: An emperical investigation. Journal of Business Research, 37(3), 225-232.
19. Cerin, P. (2002). Communication in corporate environmental reports. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 9(1), 46-66.
20. Chan, E. S. W., Okumus, F., & Chan, W. (2018). Barriers to Environmental Technology Adoption in Hotels. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 42(5), 829-852.
21. Chang, C. (2011). Feeling ambivalent about going green. Journal of Advertising, 40(4), 19-32.
22. Chang, C.-J. (2013). Price or quality? The influence of fluency on the dual role of price. Marketing Letter, 24(4), 369-380.
23. Chang, C. T. (2012). Are guilt appeals a panacea in green advertising? The right formula of issue proximity and environmental consciousness. International Journal of Advertising, 31(4), 741-771.
24. Chang, H., Zhang, L., Xie, G.-X. (2015). Message framing in green advertising: the effect of construal level and consumer environmental concern. International Journal of Advertising, 34(1), 158-176.
25. Chang, R. C. Y., Kivela, J., & Mak, A. H. N. (2010). Food preferences of Chinese tourists. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(4), 989-1011.
26. Chatterjee, B., & Mir, M. Z. (2008). The current status of environmental reporting by Indian companies. Managerial Auditing Journal, 23(6), 609-629.
27. Chen, Y.-S., & Chang, C.-H. (2012). Enhance green purchase intentions: the roles of green perceived value, green perceived risk, and green trust. Management Decision, 50(3), 502-520.
28. Chib, A., Chiew, H. J., Kumar, C., Choon, L. G., & Ale, K. (2009). [minus] plastic: influencing proenvironmental attitudes among Singaporean youth. Environmental Education Research, 15(6), 679-696.
29. Chou, C.-J., Chen, K.-S, & Wang, Y.-Y. (2012). Green practices in the restaurant industry from an innovation adoption perspective: Evidence from Taiwan. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 703-711.
30. Clark, F. C., Ketchen, J. M., & Moore, R. M. (2003). International and external influences on proenvironmental behavior: Participation in a green electricity program. Journal of Environmental Pyscohology, 23(3), 237-246.
31. Cleveland, M., Kalamas, M., & Laroche, M. (2005). Shades of green: Linking environmental locus of control and pro-environmental behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(4), 198-212.
32. Cleveland, M., Kalamas, M., & Laroche, M. (2012). It’s not Easy Being Green: Exploring Green Creeds, Green Deeds, and Internal Environmental Locus of Control. Psychology & Marketing, 29(5), 293-305.
33. Corbett, B. J. (2005). Altruism, Self-Interest, and the Reasonable Person Model of Environmentally Responsible Behavior. Science Communication, 26(4), 368-389.
34. Cordano, M., Welcomer, S., Scherer, R. F., Pradenas, L., & Parada, V. (2010). A Cross-Cultural Assessment of Three Theories of Pro-environmental behavior: a comparison between business students of Chile and the United States. Environment and Behavior, 43(5), 634-657.
35. Cornwell, B. T., & Schewpker, J. C. H. (1991). An Examination of Ecologically Concerned Consumers and Their Intention to Purchase Ecologically Packaged Products. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 10(2), 77-101.
36. Dagher, G. K., & Itani, O. (2014). Factors influencing green purchasing behaviour: Empirical evidence from the Lebanese consumers. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 13(3), 188-195.
37. Davis, J. J. (1993). Strategies for environmental advertising. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 10(2), 19-36.
38. Detweiler, J. B., Bedell, B. T., Salovey, P., Pronin, E., & Rothman, A. J. (1999). Message framing and sunscreen use: gain-framed messages motivate beach-goers. Health Psychology, 18(2), 189-196.
39. De Vries, L., Gensler, S., & Leeflang, P. S. (2012). Popularity of Brand Posts on Brand Fan Pages: An Investigation of the Effects of Social Media Marketing. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(2), 83-91.
40. Dijksterhuis, A. & van Knippenberg, A. (1996). The knife that cuts and inhibited access to traits as a result of stereotype activation. Journal of Experimental Social Pyschology, 32(3), 271-288.
41. Dodds, W. B., Monroe, K. B., & Grewal, D. (1991). Effects of Price, Brand, and Store Information on Buyers’ Production Evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(3), 307-319.
42. Easterling, D., Kenworthy, A., & Nemzoff, R. (1996). The greening of advertising: a twenty-five year look at environmental advertising. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 4(1), 20-34.
43. Ellen, P. S., Wiener, J. L., & Walgren, C. C. (1991). The role of perceived consumer effectiveness in motivating environmentally conscious behaviors. Journal of public Policy & Marketing, 10(2), 102-117.
44. Ferraro, P. J., Uchida, T., & Conrad, J. M. (2005). Price premiums for eco-friendly commodities: Are ‘green’ markets the best way to protect endangered ecosystems? Environmental and Resource Economics, 32(3), 419-438.
45. Follows, B. S., & Jobber, D. (2000). Environmentally responsible purchase behaviour: a test of a consumer model. European Journal of Marketing, 34(5/6), 723-746.
46. Förster, J., Higgings, E. T., & Taylor, B. (2003). Speed/accuracy decisions in task performance: Built-in trade-off or separate strategic concerns? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90(1), 148-164.
47. Gallastegui, I. G. (2002). The use of eco-labels: a review of the literature. European Environment, 12(6), 316-331.
48. Gillin, P. (2008). Secrets of Social Media Marketing How to Use Online Conversations and Customer Communities to Turbo-Charge Your Business! Linden Publishing.
49. Gleim, M., & Lawson, S. J. (2014). Spanning the gap: an examination of the factors leading to the green gap. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 31(6/7). 502-514.
50. Goggings, G., & Rau, H. (2016). Beyond calorie counting: assessing the sustainability of food provided for public consumption. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112(1), 257-266.
51. Goldstein, J. N., Cialdini, B. R., & Griskevicius, V. (2008). A Room with a Viewpoint: Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation in Hotels. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(3), 472-482.
52. Grankvist, G., Dahlstrand, U., & Biels, A. (2004). The impact of environmental labelling on consumer preference: negative vs positive labels. Journal of Consumer Policy, 27(2), 213-230.
53. Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., & Van den Bergh, B. (2010). Going green to be seen: Status, reputation, and conspicuous conservation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(3), 392-404.
54. Guagnano, A. G. (1995). Locus of Control, Altruism and Agentic Disposition. Population and Environment, 17(1), 63-77.
55. Haddock, J. (2005). Consumer influence on internetbased corporate communication of environmental activities: the UK food sector. British Food Journal, 107(10), 792-805.
56. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. E. (2009). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
57. Han, H., Hsu, L.-T. J., Lee, J.-S., & Sheu, C. (2011). Are lodging customers ready to go green? An examination of attitudes, demographics and eco-friendly intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(2), 345-355.
58. Han, H., & Kim, Y. (2010). An investigation of green hotel customers’ decision formation: Developing an extended model of the theory of planned behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(4), 659-668.
59. Herzig, C. & Godemann, J. (2010). Internet-supported sustainability reporting: developments in Germany. Management Research Review, 33(11), 1064-1082.
60. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations, Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
61. Holsti, O. R. (1969). Content Analysis for Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.
62. Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (2000). Applied Logistic Regressions. New York: Wiley
63. Ishaswini, N., & Datta, S. K. (2011). Pro-environmental concern influencing green buying: A study on Indian consumers. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(6), 124-133.
64. Jansson, M., & Biel, A. (2011). Motives to engage in sustainable investment: a comparison between institutional and private investors. Sustainable Development, 19(2), 135-142.
65. Jansen, M. A., Giebels, E., van Rompay, J. L. T., Austrup, S., & Junger, M. Order and control in the environment: Exploring the effects on undesired behaviour and the importance of locus of control. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 22(2), 213-227.
66. Kaheneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47(1), 263-291.
67. Keesling, G., & Kaynama, S. A. (2003). An exploratory investigation of the ecologically conscious consumers’ efforts to control water contamination: Lawn care and the use of nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 11(1), 52-61.
68. Kilbourne, W. & Pickett, G. (2008). How materialism affects environmental beliefs, concern, and environmentally responsible behavior. Journal of Business Research, 61(9), 885-893.
69. Kim, Y. (2011). Understanding green purchase: the influence of collectivism, personal values and environmental attitudes, and the moderating effect of perceived consumer effectiveness. Seoul Journal of Business, 17(1), 65-92.
70. Kim, Y., & Choi, S. J. (2005). Antecedents of Green Purchase Behavior: An Examination of Collectivism, Environmental Concern, and PCE. Advances in Consumer Research, 32(1), 592-599.
71. Krippendorf, K. (1980). Content Analysis: An Introduction To its Methodology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
72. Kumar, B., MAnrai, A. K., & Manrai, L. A. (2017). Purchasing behaviour for environmentally sustainable products: A conceptual framework and empirical study. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 34(1), 1-9.
73. Kumar, P. (2016). State of green marketing research over 25 years. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 34(1), 137-158.
74. Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1997). The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data. Biometrics, 33(1), 159-174.
75. LeCren, N., & Ozanne, L. K. (2011). Consequences of corporate environmental marketing strategies in New Zealand organisations. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 29(2), 156-177.
76. Lee, K. (2008). Opportunities for green marketing: young consumers. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 26(6), 573-586.
77. Leonidou, L. C., Leonidou, C. N., Hadjimarcous, J.S., & Lytovchenko, I. (2014). Assessing the greenness of environmental advertising claims made by multinational industrial firms. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(1), 671-684.
78. Leonidou, L.C., Leonidou, C. N., Palihawadana, D. & Hultman, M. (2011). Evaluating the green advertising practices of international firms: a trend analysis. International Marketing Review, 28(1), 6-33.
79. Levin, I. P., Schneider, S. L., & Gaeth, G. J. (1998). All Frames Are Not Created Equal: A Typology and Critical Analysis of Framing Effects. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 76(2), 149-188.
80. Li, Z., & Cheng, Y. (2014). From free to fee: exploring the antecedents of consumer intention to switch to paid online context. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 15(4), 281-299.
81. Lin, L. Y., & Chen, C. S. (2006). The influence of the country-of-origin image, product knowledge and product involvement on consumer purchase decisions: An empirical study of insurance and catering services in Taiwan. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(4/5), 248-265.
82. Lin, R.-J., Tan, K.-H., & Geng, Y. (2013). Market demand, green product innovation, and firm performance: evidence from Vietnam motorcycle industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 40(1), 101-107.
83. Lin, T. C., Hsu, J. S. C., & Chen, H. C. (2013). Customer willingness to pay for online music: the role of free mentality. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 14(4), 315-333.
84. Liobikienė, G., Bernatonienë, J., & Mandravickaitė, J. (2016). Theory of planned behavior approach to understanding the green purchasing behavior in the EU: A cross-cultural study. Ecological Economics, 125(1), 38-46.
85. Luchs, G. M., Naylor, W. R., Irwin, R. J., & Raghunathan, R. (2010). The Sustainability Liability: Potential Negative Effects of Ethicality on Product Preference. Journal of Marketing, 74(5), 18-31.
86. Lutz, J. R. (1991). The role of attitude theory (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice hall.
87. Maheswaran, D., & Chaiken, S. (1991). Promoting systematic processing in low-motivation settings: Effect of Incongruent Information on Processing and Judgement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(1), 13-25.
88. Manaktola, K., & Jauhari, V. (2007). Exploring consumer attitude and behaviour towards green practices in the lodging industry in India. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(5), 364-377.
89. McCarty, J. A., & Shrum, L. J. (2001). The influence of individualism, collectivism, and locus of control on environmental beliefs and behavior. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(1), 93-104.
90. Meinhold, J. L., & Malkus, A. J. (2005). Adolescent environmental behaviors: Can knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy make a difference? Environment and Behavior, 37(4), 511-532.
91. Meng, Z., Billeter, D. M., & Inman, J. J. (2012). The Double-Edged Sword of Signaling Effectiveness: When Salient Cues Curb Postpurchase Consumption. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(1), 26-38.
92. Meyers-Levy, J. & Maheswaran, D. (1992). When timing matters: the influence of temporal distance on consumers’ affective and persuasive responses. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(3), 424-433.
93. Mitchell, R. W., Wooliscroft, B., & Higham, J. (2010). Sustainable market orientation: a new approach to managing marketing strategy. Journal of Macromarketing, 30(2), 160-170.
94. Monroe, K. B. (2003). Pricing: Making Profitable Decisions. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill Book Company.
95. Montgomery, D. M. (1997). Ecoefficiency in Consumer Products. Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 355)1728), 1405-1414.
96. Nasir, V. A., & Karakaya, F. (2014). Consumer segments in organic foods market. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 31(4), 263-277.
97. Nelson, L. D., & Norton, M. I. (2005). From student to superhero: Situtional primes shape future helping. Journal of Experimental Social Psycohology, 41(1), 423-430.
98. Neuendorf, K. (2002). The Content Analysis Guide book. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
99. O’keefe, D. K., & Jensen, J. D. (2007). The relative persuasiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed messages for encouraging disease prevention behaviors: a metaanalytic review. Journal of Health Communication, 12(7), 623-644.
100. Orne, M. T. (1962). On the Social Psychology of the Psychological Experiment: With Particular Reference to Demand Characteristics and Their Implications. American Pyschologist, 17(11), 776-783.
101. Oyserman, D., & Lee, W. S. S. (2008). Does Culture Influence What and How We Think? Effects of Priming Individualism and Collectivism. Psychological Bulletin, 134(2), 311-342.
102. Pagiaslis, A., & Krontalis, K. A. (2015). Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents: Environmental Concern, Knowledge, and Beliefs. Psychology & Marketing, 31(5), 335-348.
103. Paladino, A. (2005). Understanding the green consumer: An empirical analysis. Journal of Customer Behavior, 49(1), 69-102.
104. Paladino, A., & Ng, S. (2013). An examination of the influences on ‘green’ mobile phone purchases among young business students: an empirical analysis. Environmental Education Research, 19(1), 118-145.
105. Papista, E., & Krystallis, A. (2013). Investigating the types of value and cost of green brands: proposition of a conceptual framework. Journal of Business Ethics, 115(1), 75-92.
106. Peña, J., & Blackburn, K. (2013). The Priming Effects of Virtual Environments on Interpersonal Perceptions and Behaviors. Journal of Communication, 63(4), 703-720.
107. Prakash, G., & Pathak, P. (2017). Intention to buy ecofriendly packaged products among young consumers of India: A study on developing nation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 141(1), 385-393.
108. Proto, M., Malandrino, O., & Supino, S. (2007). Ecolabels: a sustainability performance in behnchmarking? Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 18(6), 669-683.
109. Pulkkinen, H., Roininen, T., Katajajurri, J.-M., & Järvinen, M. (2016). Development of a Climate Choice meal concept for restaurants based on carbon footprinting. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 21(5), 621-630.
110. Rezai, G., Mohamed Z., Shamsudin, M. N., & Chiew, E. F. C. (2010). Non-Muslims’ awareness of Halal principles and related food products in Malaysia. International Food Research Journal. 17(2), 667-674.
111. Richey, J. R. G., Musgrove, C. F., Gillison, S. T., & Gabler, C. B. (2014). The effects of environmental focus and program timing on green marketing performance and the moderating role of resource commitment. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(7), 1246-1257.
112. Ritter, Á. M., Borchardt, M., Vaccaro, G. L. R., Pereira, G. M., & Almeida, F. (2015). Motivations for promoting the consumption of green products in an emerging country: exploring attitudes of Brazilian consumers. Journal of Cleaner Production, 106(1), 507-520.
113. Royne, M. B., Levy, M., & Martinez, J. (2011). The public health implications of consumers’ environmental concern and their willingness to pay for an ecofriendly product. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 45(2), 329-343.
114. Scaffidi Abbate, C., Boca, S., Spadaro, G., & Romano, A. (2014). Priming Effects on Commitment to Help and on Real Helping Behavior. Basic & Applied Social Pyschology, 36(4), 347-355.
115. Scaffidi Abbate, C., Ruggieri, S., & Boca, S. (2013). The effect of prosocial priming in the presence of bystanders. Journal of Social Pyschology, 153(5), 619-622.
116. Schuitema, G., & De Groot, J. I. M., (2015). Green consumerism: The influence of product attributes and values on purchasing intentions. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 14(1), 57-69.
117. Schutz, W. C. (1958). On Categorizing Qualitative Data in Content Analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly, 22(4), 321-325.
118. Schwartz, S. H. (1977). Normative Influences on Altruism. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 10(1), 221-279.
119. Scott, M. L., Nowlis, S. M., & Mandel, N. (2009). Consumer Usage of Ultra-Concentrated Products. Advances in Consumer Research, 36(1). 195-197.
120. Sellers, R. (2016). Would you Pay a Price Premium for a Sustainable Wine? The Voice of the Spanish Consumer. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 8(1), 10-16.
121. Sengupta, J., & Zhou, R. (2007). Understanding impulsive eaters’ choice behaviors: The motivational influences of regulatory focus. Journal of Marketing Research, 44(2), 297-308.
122. Sherman, D. K., Updegraff, J. A., & Mann, T. (2008). Improving oral health behavior: A social psychological approach. Journal of American Dental Association, 139(10), 1382-1387.
123. Sheth, J. N., Newman, B. I., & Gross, B. L. (1991). Why We Buy What We Buy: A Theory of Consumption Values. Journal of Business Research, 22(2), 159-170.
124. Sheth, J. N., Sethia, N. K., & Srinivas, S. (2011). Mindful consumption: a customer-centric approach to sustainability. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(1), 21-39.
125. Shrum, L. J., McCarthy, J.A., & Lowrey, T. M. (1995). Buyer characteristics of the green consumer and their implications for advertising strategy. Journal of Advertising, 24(2), 71-76.
126. Sims, R. (2012). Food, Place and Authenticity: Local Food and the Sustainable Tourism Experience. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17(3), 321-336.
127. Sims, R. (2010). Putting place on the menu: The negotiation of locality in UK food tourism from production to consumption. Journal of Rural Studies, 26(2), 105-115.
128. Skandrani-Marzouki, I., Marzouki, Y., & Joule, R.-V. (2012). Effects of Subliminal Affective Priming on Helping Behavior Uwing the Foot-in-the-Door Technique. Psychological Reports, 111(3), 669-686.
129. Spiller, K. (2012). It tastes better because… consumer understandings of UK farmer’s market food. Appetite, 59(1), 100-107.
130. Steg, L., Bolderdijk, J. W., Keizer, K., & Perlaviciute, G. (2014). An integrated framework for encouraging proenvironmental behaviour: the role of values, situational factors and goals. Journal of Environmental Pyschology, 38(1), 104-115.
131. Steg, L., De Groot, J., Dreijerink, L., Abrahamse, W., & Siero, F. (2011). General antecedents of personal norms, policy acceptability, and intentions: the role of values, worldviews, and environmental concern. Society and Natural Resources, 24(4), 349-367.
132. Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2009). Encouraging proenvironmental behaviour: An integrative reviews and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Pyschology, 29(3), 309-317.
133. Swani, K., Brown, B. P., & Milne, G. R. (2014). Should Tweets Differ from B2B and B2C? An Analysis of Fortune 500 Companies’ Twitter Communication. Industrial Management, 43(5), 873-881.
134. Sweeney, J. C., & Soutar, G. N. (2001). Consumer perceived value: The development of a multiple item scale. Journal of Retailing, 77(2), 203-220.
135. Sweeney, J. C., Soutar, G. N., & Johnson, L. W. (1999). The Role of Perceived Risk in the Quality-Value Relationship: A Study in a Retail Environment. Journal of Retailing, 75(1), 77-105.
136. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics. Boston: Pearson Education.
137. Tanner, C., & Wölfing Kast, S. (2013). Promoting Sustainable Consumption: Determinants of Green Purchases by Swiss Consumers. Psychology & Marketing, 20(10), 883-902.
138. Thapa, B. (2010). The mediation effect of outdoor recreation participation on environmental attitudebehavior correspondence. Journal of Environmental Education, 41(3), 133-150.
139. Tseng, C.-H. (2016). The effect of price discounts on green consumerism behavioral intentions. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 15(1), 325-334.
140. Vermeir, I., & Verbeke, W. (2006). Sustainable Food Consumption: Exploring the Consumer “Attitude- Behavioral Intention” Gap. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics, 19(2), 169-194.
141. Wang, P., Liu, Q., & Qi, Y. (2014). Factors influencing sustainable consumption behaviors: a survey of the rural residents in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 63(1), 152-165.
142. Webster, C., Chakrabarty, S., & Kinard, B. R. (2016). The effects of motivational priming on food portion size behavior. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 19(1), 39-55.
143. Wheeler, S. C., & DeMarree, K. G. (2009). Multiple mechanisms of prime-to-behavior effects. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3(4), 566-581.
144. White, K., MacDonnell, R., & Dahl, D. W. (2011). It’s the Mind-Set That Matters: The Role of Construal Level and Message Framing in Influencing Consumer Efficacy and Conservation Behaviors. Journal of Marketing Research, 48(3), 472-485.
145. White, K., & Simpson, B. (2013). When Do (and Don’t) Normative Appeals Influence Sustainable Consumer Behaviors? Journal of Marketing, 77(2), 78-95.
146. Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy - Value of Achievement Motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 68-81.
147. Wong, C. W. Y., Lai, K.-H, Shang, K.-C., & Lu, C.-S. (2014). Uncovering the value of green advertising for environmental management practices. Business Strategy and the Environment, 23(2), 117-130.
148. Wu, C., Jang, L., & Chen, C. (2011). Assessing the role of involvement as a mediator of allocentrist responses to advertising and normative influence. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 10(1), 255-256.
149. Xiao, C., Dunlap, R. E., & Hong, D. (2013). The Nature and Bases of Environmental Concern among Chinese Citizens. Social Science Quarterly, 94(3), 672-690.
150. Yadav, R., & Pathak, G. S. (2016). Young consumers’ intention towards buying green products in a developing nation: Extending the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Cleaner Production, 135 (1), 732-739.
151. Zhao, H., Gao, Q., Wu, Y., Wang, Y., & Zhu, X. (2014). What affects green consumer behavior in China? A case study from Qingdao. Journal of Cleaner Production, 63(1), 143-151
152. Zinkhan, G. M., & Carlson, L. (1995). Green Advertising and the Reluctant Consumer. Journal of Advertising, 24(2).