Gazelles in services: what are the specifics of their existence in Slovakia?

Open access


Young dynamic service enterprises – gazelles – represent the modern economy phenomenon, which stimulates the growth by its operation, in particular of local economy. This article identifies the position of gazelles in services and defines their characteristic features with regard to knowledge intensity of their production. Research results document the dominant representation of gazelles in services within the framework of their sectoral distribution and their growing economic effects in the Slovak Republic. Knowledge intensity of production is determinant of gazelle innovativeness in services, and the result is supported by knowledge of higher intensity perception of innovation effects in a knowledge-intensive production of services.

Acs, Z., Parsons, W. and Tracy, S. (2008), High-Impact Firms: Gazelles Revisited. Washington, DC: Corporate Research Board.

Agoston, S.I. (2014), “Intellectual capital in social enterprises”, Management & Marketing. Challenges for the Knowledge Society, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 423-438

Autio, E., Arenius, P. and Wallenius, H. (2000), Economic impact of gazelle firms in Finland. Espoo, FI: Helsinki University of Technology Institute of Strategy and International Business.

Barkham, R., Gudgin, V, Hart, M. and Hanvey, E. (1996), The Determinants of Small Firm Growth: An Inter-Regional Study in the United Kingdom 1986-90. London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publisher Ltd.

Barnard, P., Fischer, E., Reuber, R. and Rumald, R. (1998), Elusive Gazelles. Finding Them and Helping Them Grow. Summary of a think tank organised by Fulcrum Partners.

Birch, D. L., Haggerty, A. and Parsons, W. (1997), Who’s Creating Jobs? Hot Industries. Cambridge, Massachutts, MA: Cognetics Inc.

Birch, D. L. (1979), The Job Generation Process. MIT Program on Neighborhood and Regional Change. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Birch, D. L. (1992), Employment Dynamics in the US. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Canada, P. E. (1998), “What’s a Gazelle?” The Economic Development Marketing Letter 28, Vol. 1, No. e/2 special edition.

Cunneen, D. J. and Meredith, G. G. (2007), “Entrepreneurial Founding Activities that Create Gazelles.” In Small Enterprise Research, Taylor & Francis Online, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 39-59.

Dell´era, C., Landoni, P. and Verganti, R. (2015), “Room creative individuals to creative capital: Value creation and appropriation strategies of creative knowledge-intensive business services”, In International Journal of Innovation management, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 46-61.

Dautzenberg, K., Ehrlinspiel, M., Gude, H., Käser-Erdtracht, J., Till Schultz, P., Tenoroth, J., Tscherntke, M. and Wallau, F. (2012), Study on Fast Growing Young Companies (Gazelles) – Summary. Copenhagen, DK : Ramboll Group on behalf of the Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie.

Drieniková, K. and Kašťáková, E. (2016), Význam krajín spoločenstva nezávislých štátov pre strategické rozvojové zámery EÚ (so zameraním na Slovensko). Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo EKONÓM.

European Commission, (2010), Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth: Communication from the Commission. Research report 2010.

European Commission, (2007), Eurostat-OECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics. Paris, FR: OECD PUBLICATIONS.

Eurostat, (2009), Aggregation of Knowledge Intensive Activities based on NACE Rev.2, available at, (accessed December 10, 2011).

Feindt, S., Jeffcoate, J. and Chappell, C. (2002), “Identifying Success factors for Rapid Growth in SME E-commerce.” In Small Business Economics, Vol. 19, pp. 51-62.

FinStat. (2016), Databáza živnostníkov a fyzických osôb, available at, (accessed March 11, 2017).

Frederick, H. H. (2004), “Towards high growth enterprise.” In International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Vol. 1, No. 3/4, pp. 238-248.

Grundström, Ch., Sjöström, V., Uddemberg, A. and Rönnbäck, A. (2012), “Fast-Growing SMEs and the Role of Innovation.” In International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 1240003-1-1.

Henrekson, M. and Johansson, D. (2008), “Gazelles as Job Creators – A Survey and Interpretation of the Evidence.” In IFN Working Paper 733/2008. Stockholm, SE : Research Institute of Industrial Economics.

Henrekson, M. and Johansson, D. (2010), “Firm growth, institutions and structural transformation.” In FRITSCH, M. Handbook of research on entrepreneurship and regional development: National and regional perspectives. New York: Edward Elgar.

Haataja, M. and Okkonen, J. (2004), “Competitiveness of Knowledge Intensive Services”, In Frontiers of e-business research 2004, available at str. 257, (accessed January 18, 2016).

Instituto Nacional de Estatistica. (2014), High growth companies: larger and more exporting, available at, (accessed March 15, 2017).

Jacobs, E. J., Zámborský, P. and Sbai, E. (2017), “Mutual Productivity Spillovers in Slovakia: Absorptive Capacity, the Technology Gap, and Nonlinear Effects”. In Eastern European Economics, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 56-69.

Knošková, Ľ. (2015), “Innovation processes and entrepreneurial culture for radical innovations”. In Amfiteatru economic, Vol. 18, No. 38, pp. 342-357.

Koehler, G. and Moller, M. (1998), Business Capital Needs In California: Designing a Program. Sacramento, CA : California Research Bureau, California State Library.

Kubičková, V., Krošláková, M. and Breveníková, D. (2015), “The Impacts of innovation activities on dynamisation of SMEs in services.” In Vdoskonalennja mechanizmiv aktivizaciji ekonomičnich procesiv ta formuvannja konkurentospromožnosti nacionaľnoj ekonomiki, regionu, pidpriemstva v umovach globalizaciji, Užgorod, UA: Užgorods’kij nacionaľnij universitet, pp. 13-15.

Kubičková, V., Benešová, D., Krošláková, M. and Michálková, A. (2016.), Dynamické podniky služieb - gazely. 1. vyd. Praha : Wolters Kluwer.

Mate, D., Kun, A. and Fenyves, V. (2016), “The Impacts of Trademarks and Patents on Labour Productivity in the Knowledge-Intensive Business Service Sector”, In Amfiteatru Economic, Vol. 18, No. 41, pp. 104-119.

Michalová, V. (2011), “Služby, poznatkovo intenzívne”, In Sivák, R. a kol. Slovník znalostnej ekonomiky. Bratislava: Sprint.

Miles I. (2008), “Patterns of innovation in service industries”, In IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 47, p.115-128.

Mitusch, K. and Schimke, A. (2011), “Gazelles-High-Growth Companies.” Consortium Europe INNOVA Sectoral Innovation Watch for DG Enterprise and Industry.

Moreno, A. M. and Casillas, J. C. (2000), High-growth enterprises (gazelles): a conceptual framework. Stockholm, SE: Paper presented at the International Conference of the European Academy of Management (EURAM).

Moreno, A. M. and Casillas, J. C. (2007), “High-growth SMEs versus non-high-growth SMEs: a discriminant analysis.” In Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 69-88.

Morgan, J. (2010), Which Types of Businesses Drive Job Creation? available at, (accessed May 15, 2015).

Mote, S. (2012), High-Tech Entrepreneurship: The Life of the Gazelle, available at, (accessed November 15, 2017).

Oecd. (1998), Technology, productivity and job creation. Best policy practices. Paris: OECD.

Oecd. (2000), High-growth SMEs and employment. Paris: OECD.

Oecd. (2002), High-growth SMEs: Their contribution to employment and their characteristics. Paris: OECD.

Oecd. (2015), Entrepreneurship at a Glance 2015. Paris, FR: OECD Publishing.

Parker, S. C., Storey, D. J. and Witteloostuijn, A. (2010), “What happens to gazelles? The importance of dynamic management strategy.” In Small Business Economy, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 203-226.

Petersen, D. R. and Ahmad, N. (2007), High-Growth Enterprises and Gazelles - Preliminary and Summary Sensitivity Analysis. Paris, FR: OECD-FORA. 16.s

Psenicny, V., Jakopin, E., Vukcevic, Z. and Coric, G. (2014), “Dynamic Entrepreneurship - Generator Of Sustainable Economic Growth And Competitiveness.” In Management : Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 61-92.

ŠÚ SR. (2016), Podnikateľské štatistiky, available at, (accessed November 15, 2017).

Stone, A. and Badawy, T. L. (2011), SME Innovators and Gazelles in MENA – Educate, train, certify, compete!. World Bank.

Storey, D. J. (1994), Understanding the Small Business Sector. London, GB: Chapman & Hall.

Storey, D. J. (2010), “Understanding the small business sector: reflections and confessions.” In Braunerhjelm, Pontus (ed.) 20 Years of Entrepreneurship Research - from small business dynamics to entrepreneurial growth and societal prosperity. Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, pp. 21-33.

Zumburan, J. (2009), “Hunting For Gazelles.” In Forbes 11.16.2009, Vol. 184, No. 9, pp. 124-124.

Management & Marketing

Challenges for the Knowledge Society

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.45

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.169
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.436


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 55 55 11
PDF Downloads 37 37 7