In this essay importance will be given to the traditional and contemporary conception of the rural-urban divide. The traditional approach influenced by a hegemonic perspective has seen rural as urban residual by believing in the idea of a clear division between urban and rural, driven by demographic, cultural and economic factors. But today's empirical research in different fields, reflecting strong local and global dynamics, proves that the split between rural and urban is impossible. The change of these realities at the local and global scale has influenced the development of a thesis that reformulates the urban/rural relation under the perspective of a continuum, hybrid or liminal state. Today's urban research backs the idea that it is impossible to define once and for all what is rural and urban. Concrete cases taken in Europe and in Albania prove that the existence of realities with particular typology not only makes the existence of a general and universally accepted definition problematic, but also creates the need for a continuous, dynamic, and temporary re-definition of urban and rural.
Baudrillard, J. (1993). Baudrillard Live: Selected Interviews. London: Routledge
Baudrillard, J. (1994). Simulacra and Simulation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
Cloke, P. J., & Johnston, R. (2005). Spaces of geographical thought: Deconstructing human geography's binaries. London: SAGE.
Cromartie, J. and Swanson, L. (1996). Defining Metropolitan Areas and the Rural Urban Continuum - A Comparison of Statistical Areas Based on County and Sub-County Geography, ERS Staff Paper No. 9603, US Dept. of Agriculture, Washington
Dear, M., & Flusty, S. (1998). Postmodern Urbanism. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 88(1), 50-72.
Del Casino, C. V. (2011). A companion to social geography. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.
Derrida, J. (1997). Of Grammatology. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press
Downey, D., Kinane, I., & Parker, E. (2017). Landscapes of liminality: between space and place. London: Rowman & Littlefield International, Ltd.
Gallent, N., Juntti, M., Kidd, S., & Shaw, D. (2008). Introduction to Rural Planning. London: Taylor & Freancis
Haugen, M.S., Lysgard, H.K. (2006). “Discourses of rurality in a Norwegian context”. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, 60, 174–178.
Hugo, G. J. (1982). Circular Migration in Indonesia, Population and Development Review, 8(1), 59-84.
Jansson, A. (2013). “The Hegemony of the Urban/Rural Divide: Cultural Transformations and Mediatized Moral Geographies”. Sweden Space and Culture 16(1), 88–103
Karp, D. A., Stone, G. P., Yoels, W. C., & Dempsey, N. P. (2015). Being urban: A sociology of city life. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger
Kūle, L. (2008). Concepts of Rurality and Urbanity as Analytical Categories in Multidimensional Research. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences, 62(1-2), 9-17
Lang, M. (1986). Redefining Urban and Rural for the US Census of Population: Assessing the Need for Alternative Approaches, Urban Geography, 7(2), 118-134.
Lefebvre, H. (1991). The Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell
Marsden, T., Mooney, P., & Cloke, P. (2006). Handbook of rural studies. London: Sage.
Mormont, M. (1990). “Who Is Rural? Or, How To Be Rural:Towards A Sociology Of The Rural” in Rural Restructuring - Global processes and their responses. London: Avebury, 21-44.
Muilu, T., Rusanen, J. (2004). Changes in population and industries in the ruralareas of Finland: From analysis of administrative regions to GIS basedapproach. In Banski, J. (ed.), Changing Functions of Rural Areas in the Baltic Sea Region (pp. 109–117). Warsaw: Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics and Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization.
Portugali, J. (2011). Complexity, Cognition and the City. Heidelberg: Springer
Prieto, E. (2012). Literature, Geography, and the Postmodern Poetics of Place. New York: Palgrave Macmillan
Reinhold, M. (2010). Utopia’s Ghost. Architecture and Postmodernism, again. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press
Scott, A., Gilbert, A. & Gelan, A. (2007). The Urban-Rural Divide: Myth or Reality?. Scotland: Macaulay Institute Shirley, R. (2015). Rural modernity, everyday life and visual culture. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.
Thorns, D. C. (2002). The transformation of cities: Urban theory and urban life. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
United Nations. Statistical Division. (2017). Principles and recommendations for population and housing censuses.
Wesselman, D. (2012). Reflections of/on the City. Literature, Space, and Postmodernity. Centre for the Arts in Society, Literature science, Faculty of the Humanities, Amsterdam: Leiden University.