Polymetamorphic evolution of pelites inferred from tourmaline zoning – the Rędziny hornfels case study at the eastern contact of the Karkonosze Granite, Sudetes, Poland

Open access

Abstract

Tourmaline occurring in hornfelses from the eastern envelope of the Karkonosze Granite (Western Sudetes, Poland) reveals at least two stages of crystallization expressed by its complex zoning. The cores and mantles of the crystals probably grew during prograde metamorphism under intermediate pressure-temperature conditions reflected by increasing Mg, Ti and Ca. Outermost rims show enrichment in Al and Ca, indicating growth during contact metamorphism in the presence of an Al-saturating phase. The Ti-content in biotite indicates that the temperature of the contact metamorphic event did not exceed 650ºC. The presence of andalusite and the lack of garnet and cordierite also indicates pressure conditions of ~ 2-3 kbar, typical of the C1 bathozone of Carmichael (1978) or the P1 bathozone of Pattison (2001).

Abstract

Tourmaline occurring in hornfelses from the eastern envelope of the Karkonosze Granite (Western Sudetes, Poland) reveals at least two stages of crystallization expressed by its complex zoning. The cores and mantles of the crystals probably grew during prograde metamorphism under intermediate pressure-temperature conditions reflected by increasing Mg, Ti and Ca. Outermost rims show enrichment in Al and Ca, indicating growth during contact metamorphism in the presence of an Al-saturating phase. The Ti-content in biotite indicates that the temperature of the contact metamorphic event did not exceed 650ºC. The presence of andalusite and the lack of garnet and cordierite also indicates pressure conditions of ~ 2-3 kbar, typical of the C1 bathozone of Carmichael (1978) or the P1 bathozone of Pattison (2001).

8. References

  • Berg, G. (1912). Die krystallinen Schiefer des östlichen Riesengebirges. Abhandlungen des Preussischen Geologischen Landesamtes, 28, 1-188. Berlin.

  • Bröcker, M., & Franz, L. (2000). The contact aureole on Tinos (Cyclades, Greece). tourmaline-biotite geothermometry and Rb-Sr geochronology. Mineralogy and Petrology, 70, 257-283.

  • Carmichael, D. M. (1978). Metamorphic bathozones and bathograds. A measure of the depth of post metamorphic uplift and erosion on the regional scale. American Journal of Science, 278, 769-797.

  • Chaloupský, J. (1965). Metamorphic development of the Krkonose crystalline complex. Krystalinikum, 3, 31-54.

  • Chaloupský, J. (ed.) (1989). Geology of the Krkonose and Jizerske hory Mts. Ústřední ústav geologický, 288 pp, Praha. (in Czech, with English summary).

  • da Fonseca-Zang, W. A., Zang, J. W. & Hofmaister, W. (2008). The Ti-influence on the tourmaline color. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 19/6, 1186-1192.

  • Frey, M. (1969). Die metamorphose des Keupers vom Tafeljura bis zum Lukmanier-Gebeit (Veranderungen tonigmergeliger Geteine von Bereich der Diagenese bis zur stauralith-zone). Beitraege zur Geologishen Karte der Schweiz, 137, 1-160.

  • Hawthorne, F. C. (1996). Structural mechanism for light-element variations in tourmaline. Canadian Mineralogist, 34, 123-132.

  • Hawthorne, F. C., & Henry, D. J. (1999). Classification of the minerals of the tourmaline group. European Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 201-215. DOI: 10.1127/ejm/11/2/0201.

  • Henry, D. J., & Dutrow, B. L. (1996). Metamorphic tourmaline and its petrological applications. In. Grew E.S., Anovitz L.M. (eds) Boron: mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry. Reviews in Mineralogy, 33, 503-557.

  • Henry, D. J., & Guidotti, C. V. (1985). Tourmaline as a petrogenetic indicator mineral. an example from the staurolite-grade metapelites of NW Maine. American Mineralogist, 70, 1-15.

  • Henry, D. J., Guidotti, C. V., & Thomson, J. A. (2005). The Ti-saturation for low-to-medium pressure metapelitic biotites. Implications for geothermometry and Ti-substitution mechanisms. American Mineralogist, 90, 316-328. DOI: 10.2138/am.2005.1498.

  • Jeřábek, P., Konopásek, J., & Žáčková, E. (2016). Two-stage exhumation of subducted Saxothuringian continental crust records underplating in the subduction channel and collisional forced folding (Krkonoše-Jizera Mts., Bohemian Massif). Journal of Structural Geology, 89, 214-229. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2016.06.008.

  • Kodym, O., & Svoboda, J. (1948). Kaledonská přikrovová stavba Krkonoš a Jizerských hor. Sbornik Státnho Geologického Ústavu Republiky Československé, 15, 109-160, Praha. (in Czech).

  • Kryza, R., & Mazur, S. (1995). Contrasting metamorphic paths in the SE part of the Karkonosze-Izera block (Western Sudetes, SW Poland). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 169, 157-192.

  • Kryza, R., Schaltegger, U., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Pin, C., & Ovtcharova, M. (2014). Geochronology of a composite granitoid pluton. a high-precision ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon study of the Variscan Karkonosze Granite (SW Poland). International Journal of Earth Sciences, 103, 683-696. DOI 10.1007/s00531-013-0995-0

  • Machowiak, K., & Armstrong, R. (2007). SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of the Karkonosze granite. Mineralogia Polonica – Special Papers, 31, 193-196.

  • Majka, J., Mazur, S., Kośmińska, K., Dudek, K., & Klonowska, I. (2016). Pressure–temperature estimates of the blueschists from the Kopina Mt., northern Bohemian Massif, Poland – Constraints on subduction of the Saxothuringian continental margin. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28(6), 1047-1057. DOI: 10.1127/ejm/2016/0028-2601.

  • Maška, M. (1954). K Tektonicke Analyse Krystalinika, Knihovna Ústředního ústavu geologického, 258 pp., Praha. (in Czech).

  • Mazur, S. (1995). Structural and metamorphic evolution of the country rocks at the eastern contact of the Karkonosze granite in the southern Rudawy Janowickie Mts and Lasocki Range. Geologia Sudetica, 29, 31-98 (in Polish, English summary).

  • Mazur, S., & Aleksandrowski, P. (2001). The Teplá(?)/Saxothuringian suture in the Karkonosze-Izera massif, Western Sudetes, Central European Variscides. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 90, 341-360. DOI: 10.1007/s005310000.

  • Mazur, S., & Kryza, R. (1996). Superimposed compressional and extensional tectonics in the Karkonosze-Izera Block, NE Bohemian Massif. In. Oncken, O., & Janssen, C. (eds.), Basement Tectonics, 11, Europe and Other Regions. Potsdam, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 51-66.

  • Mochnacka, K., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Mayer, W., & Pieczka, A. (2008). Ti remobilization and sulphide/sulphoarsenide mineralization in amphibolites: effect of granite intrusion (the Karkonosze-Izera Massif, SW Poland). Geological Quarterly, 52(4), 349-368.

  • Mochnacka, K., Pieczka, A., Gołębiowska, B., & Kozłowski, A. (2001). Cassiterite from Rędziny and its relationship to the tin-bearing schist of Izera area (SW Poland). [in.] A. Piestrzyński et al. (eds.). Mineral Deposits at the Beginning of the 21st Century. Balkema Rotterdam, 457-460.

  • Oberc, J. (1960). Eastern Karkonosze tectonics and their position in the Sudeten Structures. Acta Geologica Polonica, 10(1), 1-48, (in Polish, with English summary).

  • Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Kryza, R., Mochnacka, K., & Larionov, A. (2010). Ordovician passive continental margin magmatism in the Central-European Variscides. U–Pb zircon data from the SE part of the Karkonosze-Izera Massif, Sudetes, SW Poland. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 99(1), 27-46. DOI: 10.1007/s00531-008-0382-4.

  • Oliver, G. J. H., Corfu, F., & Krough, T. E. (1993). U–Pb ages from SW Poland: evidence for a Caledonian suture zone between Baltica and Gondwana. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 150, 355-369.

  • Pattison, D. R. M. (2001). Instability of Al2SiO5 “triple point” assemblages in muscovite+biotite+quartz bearing metapelites, with implications. American Mineralogist, 86, 1414-1424.

  • Pattison, D. R. M., & Tracy, R. J. (1991). Phase equilibria and thermobarometry of metapelites. In. D.M. Kerrick, Ed., Contact metamorphism, Reviews in Mineralogy, 26, 105-206.

  • Pattison, D. R. M., Spear, F. S., Debuhr, C. L., Cheney, J. T., & Guidotti, C. V. (2002). Thermodynamic modeling of the reaction muscovite+cordierite→Al2SiO5+biotite+quartz+H2O: constraints from natural assemblages and implications for the metapelitic petrogenetic grid. Journal of metamorphic Geology, 20, 99-118. DOI: 10.1046/j.0263-4929.2001.356.356.x.

  • Pirajno, F. (1992). Hydrothermal mineral deposits. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

  • Pieczka, A., & Kraczka, J. (2004). Oxidized tourmalines – a combined chemical, XRD and Mössbauer study. European Journal of Mineralogy, 16(2), 309-321. DOI: 10.1127/0935-1221/2004/0016-0309.

  • Pieczka, A., Gołębiowska, B., & Parafiniuk, J. (2009). Conditions of formation of polymetallic mineralization in the eastern envelope of the Karkonosze granite. the case of Rędziny, southwestern Poland. Canadian Mineralogist, 47(4), 765-786. DOI: 10.3749/canmin.47.4.765.

  • Pouchou, J. L., & Pichor, F. (1985). “PAP” (phi-rho-z) procedure for improved quantitative microanalysis. In. Armstrong, J.T. (ed) Microbeam Analysis. San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 104-106.

  • Seston, R., Winchester, J. A., Piasecki, M. A. J., Crowley, Q. G., & Floyd, P. A. (2000). A structural model for the western-central Sudetes. a deformed stack of Variscan thrust sheets. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 157, 1155-1167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs.157.6.1155.

  • Słaby, E., & Kozłowski, A. (2005). Composistion of tourmalines from tin-tungsten-bearing country rock of the Variscan Karkonosze granitoid – a record of the wall rock and hydrothermal fluid interaction. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie – Abhandlungen, 181, 245-263. DOI: 10.1127/0077-7757/2005/0020.

  • Słaby, E., Götze, J., Wörner, G., Simon, K., Wrzalik, R., & Śmigielski, M. (2008). K-feldspar phenocrysts in microgranular magmatic enclaves. a cathodoluminescence and geochemical study of crystal growth as a marker of magma mingling dynamics. Lithos, 105(1), 85-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2008.02.006.

  • Słaby, E., & Martin, H. (2008). Mafic and felsic magma interaction in granites: the Hercynian Karkonosze Pluton (Sudetes, Bohemian Massif). Journal of Petrology, 49(2), 353-391. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egm085.

  • Szałamacha, M., & Szałamacha, J. (1968). The metamorphic series of the Karkonosze-Izera Mountains Block. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego, 222, 33-76, (in Polish, with English summary).

  • Teisseyre, J. H. (1971). On the age and sequence of beds in the metamorphic rocks of the Rudawy Janowickie range and Lasocki Ridge. Geologia Sudetica, 5, 165-210, (in Polish, with English summary).

  • Teisseyre, J. H. (1973). Metamorphic rocks of the Rudawy Janowickie and Lasocki Grzbiet ranges. Geologia Sudetica, 8, 7-120, (in Polish, with English summary).

  • Winkler, H. G. F. (1979). Petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks, 5th ed. Springer-Verlag, New York-Heidelberg-Berlin, 348 pp.

  • Žáčková, E., Konopásek, J. P. Jeřábek, P., Finger, F. J., & Košler, J. (2010). Early Carboniferous blueschist facies metamorphism in metapelites of the West Sudetes (northern Saxothuringian Domain, Bohemian Massif). Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 28, 361-379. DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1314.2010.00869.x.

  • Žák, J., Verner, K., Sláma, J., Kachlík, V., & Chlupáčová, M. (2013). Multistage magma emplacement and progressive strain accumulation in the shallow-level Krkonoše–Jizera plutonic complex, Bohemian Massif. Tectonics, 32, 1493-1512. DOI: 10.1002/tect.20088.

Berg, G. (1912). Die krystallinen Schiefer des östlichen Riesengebirges. Abhandlungen des Preussischen Geologischen Landesamtes, 28, 1-188. Berlin.

Bröcker, M., & Franz, L. (2000). The contact aureole on Tinos (Cyclades, Greece). tourmaline-biotite geothermometry and Rb-Sr geochronology. Mineralogy and Petrology, 70, 257-283.

Carmichael, D. M. (1978). Metamorphic bathozones and bathograds. A measure of the depth of post metamorphic uplift and erosion on the regional scale. American Journal of Science, 278, 769-797.

Chaloupský, J. (1965). Metamorphic development of the Krkonose crystalline complex. Krystalinikum, 3, 31-54.

Chaloupský, J. (ed.) (1989). Geology of the Krkonose and Jizerske hory Mts. Ústřední ústav geologický, 288 pp, Praha. (in Czech, with English summary).

da Fonseca-Zang, W. A., Zang, J. W. & Hofmaister, W. (2008). The Ti-influence on the tourmaline color. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 19/6, 1186-1192.

Frey, M. (1969). Die metamorphose des Keupers vom Tafeljura bis zum Lukmanier-Gebeit (Veranderungen tonigmergeliger Geteine von Bereich der Diagenese bis zur stauralith-zone). Beitraege zur Geologishen Karte der Schweiz, 137, 1-160.

Hawthorne, F. C. (1996). Structural mechanism for light-element variations in tourmaline. Canadian Mineralogist, 34, 123-132.

Hawthorne, F. C., & Henry, D. J. (1999). Classification of the minerals of the tourmaline group. European Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 201-215. DOI: 10.1127/ejm/11/2/0201.

Henry, D. J., & Dutrow, B. L. (1996). Metamorphic tourmaline and its petrological applications. In. Grew E.S., Anovitz L.M. (eds) Boron: mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry. Reviews in Mineralogy, 33, 503-557.

Henry, D. J., & Guidotti, C. V. (1985). Tourmaline as a petrogenetic indicator mineral. an example from the staurolite-grade metapelites of NW Maine. American Mineralogist, 70, 1-15.

Henry, D. J., Guidotti, C. V., & Thomson, J. A. (2005). The Ti-saturation for low-to-medium pressure metapelitic biotites. Implications for geothermometry and Ti-substitution mechanisms. American Mineralogist, 90, 316-328. DOI: 10.2138/am.2005.1498.

Jeřábek, P., Konopásek, J., & Žáčková, E. (2016). Two-stage exhumation of subducted Saxothuringian continental crust records underplating in the subduction channel and collisional forced folding (Krkonoše-Jizera Mts., Bohemian Massif). Journal of Structural Geology, 89, 214-229. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2016.06.008.

Kodym, O., & Svoboda, J. (1948). Kaledonská přikrovová stavba Krkonoš a Jizerských hor. Sbornik Státnho Geologického Ústavu Republiky Československé, 15, 109-160, Praha. (in Czech).

Kryza, R., & Mazur, S. (1995). Contrasting metamorphic paths in the SE part of the Karkonosze-Izera block (Western Sudetes, SW Poland). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 169, 157-192.

Kryza, R., Schaltegger, U., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Pin, C., & Ovtcharova, M. (2014). Geochronology of a composite granitoid pluton. a high-precision ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon study of the Variscan Karkonosze Granite (SW Poland). International Journal of Earth Sciences, 103, 683-696. DOI 10.1007/s00531-013-0995-0

Machowiak, K., & Armstrong, R. (2007). SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of the Karkonosze granite. Mineralogia Polonica – Special Papers, 31, 193-196.

Majka, J., Mazur, S., Kośmińska, K., Dudek, K., & Klonowska, I. (2016). Pressure–temperature estimates of the blueschists from the Kopina Mt., northern Bohemian Massif, Poland – Constraints on subduction of the Saxothuringian continental margin. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28(6), 1047-1057. DOI: 10.1127/ejm/2016/0028-2601.

Maška, M. (1954). K Tektonicke Analyse Krystalinika, Knihovna Ústředního ústavu geologického, 258 pp., Praha. (in Czech).

Mazur, S. (1995). Structural and metamorphic evolution of the country rocks at the eastern contact of the Karkonosze granite in the southern Rudawy Janowickie Mts and Lasocki Range. Geologia Sudetica, 29, 31-98 (in Polish, English summary).

Mazur, S., & Aleksandrowski, P. (2001). The Teplá(?)/Saxothuringian suture in the Karkonosze-Izera massif, Western Sudetes, Central European Variscides. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 90, 341-360. DOI: 10.1007/s005310000.

Mazur, S., & Kryza, R. (1996). Superimposed compressional and extensional tectonics in the Karkonosze-Izera Block, NE Bohemian Massif. In. Oncken, O., & Janssen, C. (eds.), Basement Tectonics, 11, Europe and Other Regions. Potsdam, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 51-66.

Mochnacka, K., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Mayer, W., & Pieczka, A. (2008). Ti remobilization and sulphide/sulphoarsenide mineralization in amphibolites: effect of granite intrusion (the Karkonosze-Izera Massif, SW Poland). Geological Quarterly, 52(4), 349-368.

Mochnacka, K., Pieczka, A., Gołębiowska, B., & Kozłowski, A. (2001). Cassiterite from Rędziny and its relationship to the tin-bearing schist of Izera area (SW Poland). [in.] A. Piestrzyński et al. (eds.). Mineral Deposits at the Beginning of the 21st Century. Balkema Rotterdam, 457-460.

Oberc, J. (1960). Eastern Karkonosze tectonics and their position in the Sudeten Structures. Acta Geologica Polonica, 10(1), 1-48, (in Polish, with English summary).

Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Kryza, R., Mochnacka, K., & Larionov, A. (2010). Ordovician passive continental margin magmatism in the Central-European Variscides. U–Pb zircon data from the SE part of the Karkonosze-Izera Massif, Sudetes, SW Poland. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 99(1), 27-46. DOI: 10.1007/s00531-008-0382-4.

Oliver, G. J. H., Corfu, F., & Krough, T. E. (1993). U–Pb ages from SW Poland: evidence for a Caledonian suture zone between Baltica and Gondwana. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 150, 355-369.

Pattison, D. R. M. (2001). Instability of Al2SiO5 “triple point” assemblages in muscovite+biotite+quartz bearing metapelites, with implications. American Mineralogist, 86, 1414-1424.

Pattison, D. R. M., & Tracy, R. J. (1991). Phase equilibria and thermobarometry of metapelites. In. D.M. Kerrick, Ed., Contact metamorphism, Reviews in Mineralogy, 26, 105-206.

Pattison, D. R. M., Spear, F. S., Debuhr, C. L., Cheney, J. T., & Guidotti, C. V. (2002). Thermodynamic modeling of the reaction muscovite+cordierite→Al2SiO5+biotite+quartz+H2O: constraints from natural assemblages and implications for the metapelitic petrogenetic grid. Journal of metamorphic Geology, 20, 99-118. DOI: 10.1046/j.0263-4929.2001.356.356.x.

Pirajno, F. (1992). Hydrothermal mineral deposits. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Pieczka, A., & Kraczka, J. (2004). Oxidized tourmalines – a combined chemical, XRD and Mössbauer study. European Journal of Mineralogy, 16(2), 309-321. DOI: 10.1127/0935-1221/2004/0016-0309.

Pieczka, A., Gołębiowska, B., & Parafiniuk, J. (2009). Conditions of formation of polymetallic mineralization in the eastern envelope of the Karkonosze granite. the case of Rędziny, southwestern Poland. Canadian Mineralogist, 47(4), 765-786. DOI: 10.3749/canmin.47.4.765.

Pouchou, J. L., & Pichor, F. (1985). “PAP” (phi-rho-z) procedure for improved quantitative microanalysis. In. Armstrong, J.T. (ed) Microbeam Analysis. San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 104-106.

Seston, R., Winchester, J. A., Piasecki, M. A. J., Crowley, Q. G., & Floyd, P. A. (2000). A structural model for the western-central Sudetes. a deformed stack of Variscan thrust sheets. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 157, 1155-1167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1144/jgs.157.6.1155.

Słaby, E., & Kozłowski, A. (2005). Composistion of tourmalines from tin-tungsten-bearing country rock of the Variscan Karkonosze granitoid – a record of the wall rock and hydrothermal fluid interaction. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie – Abhandlungen, 181, 245-263. DOI: 10.1127/0077-7757/2005/0020.

Słaby, E., Götze, J., Wörner, G., Simon, K., Wrzalik, R., & Śmigielski, M. (2008). K-feldspar phenocrysts in microgranular magmatic enclaves. a cathodoluminescence and geochemical study of crystal growth as a marker of magma mingling dynamics. Lithos, 105(1), 85-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2008.02.006.

Słaby, E., & Martin, H. (2008). Mafic and felsic magma interaction in granites: the Hercynian Karkonosze Pluton (Sudetes, Bohemian Massif). Journal of Petrology, 49(2), 353-391. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egm085.

Szałamacha, M., & Szałamacha, J. (1968). The metamorphic series of the Karkonosze-Izera Mountains Block. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego, 222, 33-76, (in Polish, with English summary).

Teisseyre, J. H. (1971). On the age and sequence of beds in the metamorphic rocks of the Rudawy Janowickie range and Lasocki Ridge. Geologia Sudetica, 5, 165-210, (in Polish, with English summary).

Teisseyre, J. H. (1973). Metamorphic rocks of the Rudawy Janowickie and Lasocki Grzbiet ranges. Geologia Sudetica, 8, 7-120, (in Polish, with English summary).

Winkler, H. G. F. (1979). Petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks, 5th ed. Springer-Verlag, New York-Heidelberg-Berlin, 348 pp.

Žáčková, E., Konopásek, J. P. Jeřábek, P., Finger, F. J., & Košler, J. (2010). Early Carboniferous blueschist facies metamorphism in metapelites of the West Sudetes (northern Saxothuringian Domain, Bohemian Massif). Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 28, 361-379. DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1314.2010.00869.x.

Žák, J., Verner, K., Sláma, J., Kachlík, V., & Chlupáčová, M. (2013). Multistage magma emplacement and progressive strain accumulation in the shallow-level Krkonoše–Jizera plutonic complex, Bohemian Massif. Tectonics, 32, 1493-1512. DOI: 10.1002/tect.20088.

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