Influence of liquid-nitrogen freezing of gas-bearing shale rocks on their compressive strength

Open access

Abstract

Any definable relation between falling temperature and the compressive strength of shale rocks should provide a useful predictive tool aiding optimization of the results of hydraulic fracturing. In this research, an auto-measuring hydraulic press, a thermo-camera and the Fluent ANSYS software were used. The results of laboratory simulations, and the effects of experiments conducted on shale rocks to determine permanent changes in compressive strength, are presented. As both frozen rocks and rocks returned to room temperature show diminished compressive strength. It is suggested that prior freezing of rocks can increase the efficiency of fracturing.

Abstract

Any definable relation between falling temperature and the compressive strength of shale rocks should provide a useful predictive tool aiding optimization of the results of hydraulic fracturing. In this research, an auto-measuring hydraulic press, a thermo-camera and the Fluent ANSYS software were used. The results of laboratory simulations, and the effects of experiments conducted on shale rocks to determine permanent changes in compressive strength, are presented. As both frozen rocks and rocks returned to room temperature show diminished compressive strength. It is suggested that prior freezing of rocks can increase the efficiency of fracturing.

6. References

  • Alawadhi, E. M. (2010). Finite Element Simulations Using ANSYS. Florida. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4398-016-1

  • Boyer, C., Kieschnick, J., Suarez-Rivera, R., Lewis, R.E., & Waters, G. (2006). Producing Gas from its source. Oilfield Review, 18, 36-49.

  • Cai, Ch., Li, G., Huang, Z., Shen, Z., Tian, S., Wei, J. (2014). Experimental study of the effect of liquid nitrogen cooling on rock pore structure. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 21, 507-517. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2014.08.026

  • Cipolla, C. L., Warpinski, N. R., Mayerhofer, M. J., Lolon, E. P., & Vincent, M. C. (2008). The relationship between fracture complexity, reservoir treatment and fracturing treatment design. SPE 2008. 115769. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/115769-MS.

  • Higgins, E. W. (2015). Liquid Nitrogen: Characteristics, Uses and Safety concerns. New York. Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-63483-803-0

  • Huotari, T., & Kukkonen I. (2004). Thermal Expansion Properties of Rocks: Literature Survey and Estimation of Thermal Expansion Coefficient for Olkiluoto Mica Gneiss. Geological Survey of Finland. Posiva 2004-04

  • Jarvie, D. M., Hill, R. J., Ruble, T. E., Pollastro, R. M. (2007). Unconventional shale-gas systems: the Mississippian Barnett shale of north-central Texas as one model for thermogenic shale-gas assessment. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 91, 475-499. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1306/12190606068.

  • King, G. E. (2010) Thirty years of gas shale fracturing: What we have learned. SPE 2010. 133456.

  • Kasza, P. (2013). Efektywne szczelinowanie łupków w Polsce. Nafta-Gaz, 11, 807-813. (in Polish).

  • Li, Q., Xing, H., Liu, J., & Liu, X. (2015). A review of hydraulic fracturing of unconventional reservoir. Petroleum, 1, 1, 8-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petlm.2015.03.008.

  • Mustafa, K. A., Sephton, M., Watson, J. S., Spathopoulos, F., & Krzywiec, P. (2015). Organic geochemical characteristics of black shales across the Ordovician-Silurian boundary in the Holy Cross Mountains, central Poland. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 66, 1042-1055. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.08.018.

  • Polish Geological Institute National Research Institute. (2013). Państwowa służba geologiczna o gazie w łupkach. ISBN 978-83-7863-266-5

  • Rybacki, E., Meier, T., & Dresen, G. (2015). What controls the mechanical properties of shale rocks? – Part I: Strength and Young's modulus. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 135, 702-722. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.10.028.

  • Trela, W. (2006). Lithostratigraphy of the Ordovician in the Holy Cross Mountains. Przegląd Geologiczny. 55, 622-631. (in Polish with English summary).

  • U.S. Energy Information Administration (2015, September) Map of basins with assessed shale oil and shale gas formations. Retrieved October 7, 2017, from https://www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/worldshalegas/.

  • Zhai, Ch., Wu, S., Liu, S., Qin, L., & Xu, J. (2017). Experimental study on coal pore structure deterioration under freeze-thaw cycles. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76, 507. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s1266.

Alawadhi, E. M. (2010). Finite Element Simulations Using ANSYS. Florida. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4398-016-1

Boyer, C., Kieschnick, J., Suarez-Rivera, R., Lewis, R.E., & Waters, G. (2006). Producing Gas from its source. Oilfield Review, 18, 36-49.

Cai, Ch., Li, G., Huang, Z., Shen, Z., Tian, S., Wei, J. (2014). Experimental study of the effect of liquid nitrogen cooling on rock pore structure. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 21, 507-517. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2014.08.026

Cipolla, C. L., Warpinski, N. R., Mayerhofer, M. J., Lolon, E. P., & Vincent, M. C. (2008). The relationship between fracture complexity, reservoir treatment and fracturing treatment design. SPE 2008. 115769. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/115769-MS.

Higgins, E. W. (2015). Liquid Nitrogen: Characteristics, Uses and Safety concerns. New York. Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-63483-803-0

Huotari, T., & Kukkonen I. (2004). Thermal Expansion Properties of Rocks: Literature Survey and Estimation of Thermal Expansion Coefficient for Olkiluoto Mica Gneiss. Geological Survey of Finland. Posiva 2004-04

Jarvie, D. M., Hill, R. J., Ruble, T. E., Pollastro, R. M. (2007). Unconventional shale-gas systems: the Mississippian Barnett shale of north-central Texas as one model for thermogenic shale-gas assessment. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 91, 475-499. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1306/12190606068.

King, G. E. (2010) Thirty years of gas shale fracturing: What we have learned. SPE 2010. 133456.

Kasza, P. (2013). Efektywne szczelinowanie łupków w Polsce. Nafta-Gaz, 11, 807-813. (in Polish).

Li, Q., Xing, H., Liu, J., & Liu, X. (2015). A review of hydraulic fracturing of unconventional reservoir. Petroleum, 1, 1, 8-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petlm.2015.03.008.

Mustafa, K. A., Sephton, M., Watson, J. S., Spathopoulos, F., & Krzywiec, P. (2015). Organic geochemical characteristics of black shales across the Ordovician-Silurian boundary in the Holy Cross Mountains, central Poland. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 66, 1042-1055. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.08.018.

Polish Geological Institute National Research Institute. (2013). Państwowa służba geologiczna o gazie w łupkach. ISBN 978-83-7863-266-5

Rybacki, E., Meier, T., & Dresen, G. (2015). What controls the mechanical properties of shale rocks? – Part I: Strength and Young's modulus. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 135, 702-722. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.10.028.

Trela, W. (2006). Lithostratigraphy of the Ordovician in the Holy Cross Mountains. Przegląd Geologiczny. 55, 622-631. (in Polish with English summary).

U.S. Energy Information Administration (2015, September) Map of basins with assessed shale oil and shale gas formations. Retrieved October 7, 2017, from https://www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/worldshalegas/.

Zhai, Ch., Wu, S., Liu, S., Qin, L., & Xu, J. (2017). Experimental study on coal pore structure deterioration under freeze-thaw cycles. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76, 507. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s1266.

Mineralogia

The Journal of Mineralogical Society of Poland

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.82

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.272
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.342

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 102 102 17
PDF Downloads 47 47 4