Celestite in the Weathering Crust on Limestone Exposed to an Urban Atmosphere in Cracow (Poland)
Celestite containing very low amounts of barium occurs in weathering reaction zones developed on the Pińczów limestone exposed to the polluted atmosphere of Cracow. The mineral occurs both in limestone pore spaces filled with gypsum and in black gypsum crust. The Pińczów limestone contains ca 500 ppm strontium which was released during the reaction with atmospheric pollutants. The nucleation and growth of celestite, requiring significant concentration of components in evaporating solutions, is associated with gypsum crystallization.
BROMOWICZ 2001: Application of the building stones of the Cracow area for the masonary reconstructions - the evaluation of perspectives (in Polish, English summary). Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi 17, 1, 5-72.
CZEREWKO M. A., CRIPPS J. C., REID J. M., DUFFELL C. G., 2003: Sulfur species in geological materials - sources and quantification. Cement and Concrete Composites 25, 657-671.
DOUGLAS S., 2004: Microbial biosignatures in evaporative deposits: Evidence from Death Valley, California. Planetary and Space Science 52, 223-227.
FU Q., QING H., BERGMAN K. M., 2004: Dolomitized calcrete in the Middle Devonian Winnipegosis carbonatemounds, subsurface of south-central Saskatchewan, Canada. Sedimentary Geology 168, 49-69.
HABER J., HABER H., KOZŁOWSKI R., MAGIERA J., PŁUSKA J., 1988: Air pollution and decay of architectural monuments in the city of Cracow. Durability of Building Materials 5, 499-547.
KOZŁOWSKI r., MAGIERA J., WEBER J., HABER J., 1990: Decay and conservation of Pińczów porous limestone; I. Lithology and weathering. Studies in Conservation 35, 205-221.
MANECKI A., CHODKIEWICZ M., KONOPACKI S., 1982: Results of mineralogical investigations of the dimensions and causes of the destruction of stone elements in Cracow's monumental buildings (in Polish, English summary). Sozologia i Sozotechnika 35, 7-34.
MELIM L. A., WESTPHAL H., SWART P. K., EBERLI G. P., MUNNECKE A., 2002: Questioning carbonate diagenetic paradigms: evidence from the Neogene of Bahamas. Marine Geology 185, 27-53.
PROBST A., GH'MARI A. E., AUBERT D., FRITZ B., MCNUTT R., 2000: Strontium as a tracer of weathering processes in a silicate catchment polluted by acid atmospheric input, Strengbach, France. Chemical Geology 170, 203-217.
RODRÍGUEZ-NAVARRO C., SEBASTIAN E., RODRÍGUEZ-GALLEGOM., 1997: An urban model for dolomite precipitation: authigenic dolomite on weathered building stones. Sedimentary Geology 109, 1-11.
SÁUNCHEZ-PASTOR N., PINA C. M., FERNÁNDEZ-DÍAZ L., 2006: Relationships between crystal morphology and composition in the (Ba, Sr)SO4-H2O solid solution-aqueous solution system. Chemical Geology 225, 266-277.
WILCZYŃSKA-MICHALIK W., 2004: Influence of atmospheric pollution on the weathering of stones in Cracow monuments and rock outcrops in Cracow, Cracow-CzĘstochowa Upland and the Carpathians. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, Kraków, p. 1-247.