Fourth industrial revolution and managers' cognitive competences

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to provide a description of the cognitive competencies that should be possessed by managers amid the circumstances recently rounded up under the umbrella term "Economy 4.0." We pay attention especially to the group of specialists called marketers of innovation, devoted to setting up and maintaining links between business on the one hand, and science on the other. Economy's capacity for innovative solutions hinges on these links, and the whole project of economy 4.0 depends, in turn, on innovations.

1 H. Kagermann, W. Wahlster, J. Helbig (red.), Securing the future of German manufacturing industry. Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative Industrie 4.0: Final report of the Industrie 4.0 Working Group, National Academy of Science and Engineering 2013. Warto także odwiedzić Platformę Industrie 4.0: http://www.plattformi40.de/I40/Navigation/DE/Industrie40/WasIndustrie40/was-ist-industrie-40.html

2 Strategia na Rzecz Odpowiedzialnego Rozwoju, Ministerstwo Rozwoju, Warszawa 2017; online access: https://www.mr.gov.pl/media/36848/SOR_2017_maly_internet_03_2017_aa.pdf [viewed on 30.10.2017].

3 This goal is formulated directly at the portal devoted to economy 4.0, sponsored by the government of Germany: https://industrie4.0.gtai.de/INDUSTRIE40/Navigation/EN/Topics/industrie-4-0.html. . However, here we won't discuss the political - or more generally - the geopolitical aspects of the project.

4 https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-what-it-means-and-how-to-respond/ [viewed on 31.10.2017].

5 See: http://www.dutchnews.nl/features/2017/06/the-new-dutch-cabinet-must-get-its-economy-4-0-act-together/ [viewed on 30.10.2017].

6 See: M. Herman, T. Pentek, B. Otto, Design Principles for Industrie 4.0 Scenarios, In: T.X. Bui, R.H. Sprague Jr., Proceedings of the 49th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences HICSS2016. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Los Alamitos-Washington-Tokyo 2016.

7 Strategia na Rzecz Odpowiedzialnego Rozwoju, op. cit. p. 9.

8 See e.g..: D. Helbig, B.S. Frey, G. Gigerenzer, E. Hafen, M. Hagner, Y. Hofstetter, J. van den Hoven, R.V. Zicari, A. Zwitter, Will Democracy Survive Big Data and Artificial Intelligence? „Scientific American” 25 Luty 2017, online access: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/will-democracy-survive-big-data-and-artificial-intelligence [viewed on 29.10.2017]; R. Botsman, Big data meets Big Brother as China moves to rate its citizens, „Wired” 21 października 2017, online access: http://www.wired.co.uk/article/chinese-government-social-credit-scoreprivacy-invasion [viewed on 31.10.2017].

9 See e.g.: P. Godfrey-Smith, Individuality, Subjectivity, and Minimal Cognition, Biology & Philosophy 31 (6) 2016.

10 Thus, in essence from the philosophical perspective, as it is philosophy of this kind that investigates and generates the most general conceptual models.

11 See e.g.: S. Kauffman, At Home in the Universe: The Search for Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity, Oxford University Press, Oxford-New York 1995.

12 S. Lem, Summa technologiae, Wydawnictwo Literackie, Kraków 1964.

13 M. Beauchamp, A. Kowalczyk, A. Skala, Polskie Sturtupy. Raport 2017, Fundacja Startup Poland, Warszawa 2017.

14 See e.g.: E. Nęcka, Psychologia twórczości, Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne, Gdańsk 2001; G. Gigerenzer, Rationality for Mortals. How People Cope with Uncertainty, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2008.

15 Patrz: P. Kotler, Marketing nie stoi w miejscu. Nowe spojrzenie na zyski, wzrost i odnowę, Wyd. PLACET, Warszawa, 2002.

16 See: Kotler Ph. Marketing - Analiza, planowanie, wdrażanie i kontrola, Gebethner & Sp., Warszawa 1999; P. Kotler, H. Kartajaya, I. Setiawan, Marketing 3.0., Wydawnictwo MT Biznes, Warszawa, 2016.

17 Kotler and his colleagues recently proposed the concept of marketing 4.0; see: P. Kotler, H. Kartajaya, I. Setiawan, Marketing 4.0., Wydawnictwo MT Biznes, Warszawa, 2017. However, our proposal goes in a slightly different direction. It is not just about adding new dimensions to the concept of marketing, but finding a new role for marketing. According to the concept of innovation marketing, this will be a kind of mediation between the sector of science and the sphere of business.

18 Białoń L., Zarządzanie marketingiem, Wyd. WSM w Warszawie, Warszawa, 2011, p. 45.

19 L. Białoń, Zarządzanie działalnością innowacyjną, Wyd. PLACET, Warszawa, 2010; Sprawa nie dotyczy tylko Polski; patrz: J.J. Mohr, Sengupta S., Slater S., Marketing of High-Technology Products and Innovations, Pearson, Upper Saddle River NJ.

20 P. Kotler, H. Kartajaya, I. Setiawan I., Marketing 4.0., op. cit.

21 See: L. Białoń, A. Kamińska (ed.), Uwarunkowania przekształceń małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw w firmy innowacyjne, Wydawnictwo WSM w Warszawie, 2014.

22 See: S. Kauffman, op. cit.; I. Prigogine, The End of Certainty, The Free Press, New York 1997; M. Newman, Networks. An Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2010; Y. Bar-Yam, General Features of Complex Systems, In: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), on-line http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c15/E1-29-01-00.pdf [viewed on 31.10.2017].

23 All of this originates from certain projects in the area of ontology that is, the most general philosophical-formal theory of a subject, especially in the theoretical efforts of such people as Plato, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Ludwig Wittgenstein, or Roman Ingarden; See: J. Perzanowski, Miejsce Wittgensteina w PL-metafizyce, In: J. Bremer, J. Rothhaupt (ed.) Ludwig Wittgenstein, przydzielony do Krakowa/Krakau zugeteilt, Wyd. WAM and Ignatianum, Kraków 2009.

24 D. Helbig, Economy 4.0. Prezentacja w ramach projektu FuturICT, dostępna on-line: https://www.ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/main/news/treffpunkt/Pr%C3%A4sentationsfolien/2014_Fr%C3%BChjahr/Helbing_futurICT_Economy4.0.pdf

25 Thus, Helbing makes a significant generalization of the starting concept, including it in the framework of a broader, international research project titled "FuturICT" (ICT - Information and Communication Technology) cofinanced by the European Union, which is aimed at investigating complexity on the social level, among others, the issue of migration, health, criminality, sources and utilization of energy. See: https://futurict.inn.ac

26 At least, this is what one of the hypotheses concerning the subject says; See: P. Godfrey-Smith, Complexity and the function of mind in nature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1996.

27 See: Plan rozwoju elektromobilności w Polsce „Energia do przyszłości”, Ministerstwo Energii, Warszawa 2017; online access: http://www.me.gov.pl/Innowacyjnosc/Elektromobilnosc [viewed on 2.11.2017].

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