The peripheries of development: development and labour in circumstances of constant shortages, as exemplified by the Frías district of Peru

Open access


Empirical research into social vulnerability – and into strategies that allow people to persist or secure their existence – has most often concerned itself with peripheral, poorly-developed regions with a long history of shortages; frequently even ones in which a failure to solve socio-political problems over decades or even centuries, manifests itself in a permanent crisis. One such region is north–western Peru, presented in this article by the authors who have proceeded on the assumption that the socioeconomic development of the country’s mountainous areas (including Frías, the district selected for study) not only reflects a peripheral location as regards central areas of Peru and the department of Piura, but is also an outcome of the workings of political and environmental factors that do not help sustain (or in many cases even obstruct) processes of development.

Adger Neil, W 2006, ‘Vulnerability’, Global Environmental Change, vol. 16, pp. 268-281.

Berkes, F, Colding, J & Folke, C 2003, ‘Navigating social-ecological systems. Building resilience for complexity and change’, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Berkes, F & Folke, C (ed.) 1998, ‘Linking social and ecological systems. Management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience’, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Bohle, HG & Glade, T 2008, ‘Vulnerabilitätskonzepte in sozial- und naturwissenschaft‘ in Naturrisiken und sozialkatastrophen, eds C Felgentreff & T Glade, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag. Berlin, Heidelberg.

Bohle, HG 2007, ‘Geographien von verwundbarkeit‘, Geographische Rundschau, October 10/2007, pp. 20 – 25.

Bohle, HG 2001, ‘Neue ansätze der geographischen risikoforschung. Ein analuserahmen zur bestimmung nachhaltiger lebenssicherung von armutsgruppen’, Die Erde, 132, pp. 119 – 140.

Braun, B & Shoed, AZ 2008, ‘Naturrisiken und sozialkatastrophen in Bangladesch – wirbelstürme und überschwemmungen’ in Naturrisiken und sozialkatastrophen, eds C Felgentreff & T Glade, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, pp. 381 – 394.

Carpenter, SR, Benson, BJ, Biggs, R, Chipman, JW., Foley, JA, Golding, SA, Hammer, RB, Hanson, PC, Johnson, PTJ, Kamarainen, AM, Kratz, TK, Lathrop, RC, McMahon, KD, Provencher, B, Rusak, JA, Solomon, CT, Stanley, EH, Turner, MG, Vander Zanden, MJ, Wu, CH & Yuan, H 2001, ‘Understanding regional change. A comparison of Two Lake Districts’, BioScience, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 323 – 335. Available from:[20 October 2013].

Chambers, R 1989, ‘Editorial introduction: vulnerability, coping and policy’ IDS Bull, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 17.

Córdova-Aguilar, H 1982. Negative development. The impact of a road on the agricultural system of frias, Northwestern Perú, Madison, Ph.D. Diss., Univ. of Wisconsin.

Córdova-Aguilar, H 2013, Nuevo plan de desarrollo local concertado del distrito de Frías, provincia de Ayabaca, Piura 20132025, Municipalidad de Frías, Sociedad Geográfica de Lima, Lima.

Czerny, M 2008, ‘Estudios territoriales: nuevos enfoques relacionados con los conceptos de „vulnerabilidad” y de „la aseguración de la existencia de la sociedad” (livelihood)’, in El Desarrollo Hoy en América Latina, El Colegio de Tlaxcala, México, pp. 145–158.

Czerny, M, Łuczak, R & Makowski, J 2007, Globalistyka, PWN, Warszawa.

Czerny M & Córdova Aguilar, H 2014, Livelihood - hope and conditions of a new paradigm for development studies. The case of Andean Regions, Nova Publishers, New York.

Folke, C 2006, ‘Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses’, Global Environmental Change, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 253–267.

Hann, L & de Zoomers, A 2005, ‘Exploring the frontiers of livelihoods research’, Development and Change, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 27–47.

Krüger, F & Macamo, E 2003, ‘Existenzsicherung unter risikobedingungen–sozialwissenschaftliche analyseansätze mit krisen, konflikten und katastrophen’, Geographica Helvetica, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 47–55.

Müller-Mahn, D 2008, ‘Scheidende katastrophen – düren und hungerkrisen in Afrika’ in Naturrisiken und sozialkatastrophen, eds C Felgentreff &T Glade, Spektrum AkademischerVerlag, pp. 395–410

Müller-Mahn, D & Rettberg, S 2007, ‘Weizen oder waffen? Umgang mit risiken bei den Afar-Nomaden in Äthiopien’, Geographische Rundschau, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 40–47.

Región Agraria Piura- Sede de Agencia Frías 2008, Plan de Desarrollo Local Concertado 2011-2021. Piura

Schaef, T & Brunner, K 2007, ‘Katastrophenvorsorge im einzugsgebiet des Rio San Pedro in Bolivien’ Geographische Rundschau, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 32–39.

Scholz, F 2006, Entwicklungsländer. Entwicklungspolitische grundlagen und regionale beispiele, Westermann, Braunschweig.

Stenning, A, Świątek, D Smith, A & Rochovská A 2002, ‘Wykluczenie społeczne a ekonomiczne praktyki gospodarstw domowych w Nowej Hucie’. Available from: [10 October 2014].

Watts, MJ & Bohle, HG 1993, ‘The space of vulnerability: the causal structure of hunger and famine'. Progress in Human Geography, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 43–67.

Zoomers, A 2006, ‘Pro-indigenous reforms in Bolivia. Is there an Andean way to escape poverty?' Development and Change, vol 37, no. 5, pp. 10231046.

III CENAGRO (Censo Nacional Agropecuario), 1994, Lima, Peru

XI Censo Nacional de Población, Lima, Peru

VI Censo de Vivienda del año 2007, Lima, Peru.

Miscellanea Geographica

Regional Studies on Development

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.73

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.404
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.759

Covered by e.g. Web of Science Core Collection by Clarivate Analytics, and SCOPUS by Elsevier
14 points in the Ministerial journal value rating scale


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 290 271 65
PDF Downloads 242 239 67