Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasitism Infections in Cattle of Bass Kabylie Area: Case of Bejaia Province, Algeria

Open access

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, identification of species and the dynamics of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites during humid and dry seasons in local cattle of different ages. The study was carried out in the Province of Bejaia, Algeria from December 2013 to June 2014. A total of 143 fecal samples were collected from different cattle herds. Fecal samples were visually examined then observed using flotation and sedimentation microscopic techniques. Eggs and worms were identified according to standard procedures. 63% of the cattle examined were found positive with one or more parasite species. Our results revealed that the eggs of Eimeria spp. are predominant (43.87%) followed by Strongylus spp. (30.32%) and Fasciola hepatica (12.25%). Eggs of Strongyloides papillosus, Moniezia benedeni, Paramphistomum daubneyi. and Toxocara vitulorum represent 1.29%, 1.93%, 1.93% and 6.45%, respectively. There is a significant difference between the sex of the animal and the prevalence rate of Strongyle spp. and Eimeria spp. (P< 0.01 ). As for the body condition score, there is a statically significant (P< 0.01 ) difference between the prevalence rate of GI parasite and the nutritional status of cattle. In conclusion, our preliminary investigation demonstrated highly prevalent and that abundance of the polyparasitism nature of the disease in Bass Kabylie area. Also, there was a relationship between the distribution of GI parasitism in cattle and the factors analyzed (body condition score, age and sex). Further studies are need for planning future research and to design rational and sustainable locally GI parasites control programmes.

1. Ministry of agriculture and rural development (MADR) (2012). Report on animal genetic resources, Algeria.

2. Borges, F. A., Almeida G. D., Heckler, R. P., Lemes, R.T., Onizuka, M.K.V., Borges, D. G. L. (2013). Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves. Tropical Animal Health and Production 45, 723-727. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0280-4 PMid:23076819

3. Mahusoon, M.M., Perera, A.N.F., Perera, E.R.K., Perera, K.A. (2004). Effect of molybdenum supplementation on circulating mineral levels, nematode infection and body weight in goats as related to season. Tropical Agricultural Research 16, 128–136.

4. Stromberg, B.E., Gasbarre, L.C., Waite, A., Bechtol, D.T., Brown, M.S., Robinson, N.A., Olson, E.J., Newcomb, H. (2012). Cooperia punctata: Effect on cattle productivity? Veterinary Parasitology 183, 284–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.030 PMid:21821358

5. Barger I.A., Gibbs, H.C. (1981). Milk production of cows infected experimentally with trichostrongylid parasites. Veterinary Parasitology 9, 69–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4017(81)90008-X

6. Mavrot, F., Hertzberg, H., Torgerson, P. (2015). Effect of gastro-intestinal nematode infection on sheep performance: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Parasites & Vectors 8, 577-588. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-1164-z PMid:26496893 PMCid:PMC4619485

7. Rahman, M.M., Samad, M.A. (2010). Prevalence of subclinical gastro-intestinal parasitosis and their effects on milk production with therapeutic management in red Chittagong cattle. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 8 (1): 11-16.

8. Ntonifor, H.N., Shei, S.J., Ndaleh, N.W., Mbunkur, G.N. (2013). Epidemiological studies of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in ruminants in Jakiri, Bui Division, North West Region of Cameroon. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health 5 (12): 344-352.

9. Baumgard, L.H., Rhoads, R.P., Rhoads, M.L., Gabler, N.K., Ross, G.B., Keating, A.F., Boddicker, R.L., Lenka, S., Sejian, V. (2012). impact of climate change on livestock production. In: Sejian, V., Naqvi, S.M.K., Ezji, T., Lakritz, J., Lal, R. (Eds.), Environmental stress and amelioration in livestock production (pp. 413-497). New York: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-29205-7

10. Keyyu, J.D, Kassuku, A.A, Msalilwa, L.P, Monradm J. and Kyvsgaad, N.C. (2006). Cross–sectional prevalence of helminth infections in cattle on traditional, small-scale and large-scale dairy farms in Iringa district, Tanzania. Veterinary Research Communication 30, 45-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-005-3176-1 PMid:16362610

11. Euzeby, J. (1982). Experimental diagnosis of animal helminthiases (domestic animals - laboratory animals - primates). In: Euzeby, J. (Ed.), Practical work in veterinary helminthology. Vol. II (pp. 295-322). Paris., Technical Information of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture.

12. Edmonson, A.J., Lean, I.J., Weaver, L.D., Farver, T., Webster, G. (1989). A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 72, 68-78. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79081-0

13. Cringoli, L. Rinaldi, V. Veneziano, G., Capelli, A. (2004). Scala the influence of floatation solution, sample dilution and the choice of McMaster slide area (volume) on the reliability of the McMaster technique in estimating the faecal egg counts of gastrointestinal strongyles and Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep. Veterinary Parasitology 123, 121–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.05.021 PMid:15265576

14. Charles, P.D. (1996). Normal flora. In: Baron S. (Ed.), Medical Microbiology, 4th edition (pp. 70-102). Texas, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston.

15. Dimander, S.O., Höglund, J., Uggla, A., Spörndlyn, E., Waller, P. J. (2003). Evaluation of gastro-intestinal nematode parasite control strategies for first season grazing cattle in Sweden. Veterinary Parasitology 111 (2-3): 193-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(02)00380-1

16. Charlier, J., De Waele, V., Ducheyne, L., van der Voort, M., Vande Velde, F., Claerebout, E. (2016). Decision making on helminths in cattle: diagnostics, economics and human behaviour. Irish Veterinary Journal 69, 14-19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13620-016-0073-6 PMid:27708771 PMCid:PMC5039886

17. Fikru, R., Teshale, S., Reta, D., Yosef, K. (2006). Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in Western Oromia, Ethiopia. International Journal of Applied in Research Veterinary Medicine 4(1): 51–57.

18. Boucheikhchoukh, M., Righi, S., Sedraoui S., Mekroud, A., Benakhla, A. (2012). Main helminthoses cattle: epidemiological survey at two abattoirs in the region of El-Tarf (Algeria). Tropicultura 30 (3): 167-172.

19. Achi, Y.L., Zinsstag, J., Yéo, N., Dea, V., Dorchies, PH. (2003). Gastrointestinal nematodes of bovines in the savanna region of the Ivory Coast: slaughterhouse survey. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire 154 (2): 105-112.

20. Agbajelola, V. I., Falohun Olufarati, O. (2015). Prevalence of intestinal helminths and protozoa parasites of ruminants in Minna, North Central, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 8(11): 62-67.

21. Lone, B.A., Chishti, M.Z., Ahmad F. (2013). Seasonal occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep of Kashmir division. International Journal of Livestock Research 3(2): 135-136. https://doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20130509093410

22. Fuentes, M.V., Saez, S., Trelis, M., Galan-Puchades, M.T., Esteban, J.G. (2004). The helminth community of the wood, Apodemus sylvaticus, in the Sierra Espuna, Murda, Spain. Journal of Helminthology 78(2): 219-223. https://doi.org/10.1079/JOH2003226 PMid:15469624

23. Beugnet, F., Guillot, J. (2008). General parasitic diseases: gastrointestinal strongyloses. In: Institutes breeding (Ed.), Cattle diseases. 4th edition (pp. 98-105). Paris: France Agricole. PMCid:PMC2753212

24. Alcaraz, C.O., Adell, R.I., Sanchez, P.S., Blasco, M.J., Sanchez, O.A., Aunon, A.S. et al. (2004). Characteristics and geographical profile of strongyloidiasis in healthcare area 11 of the Valencian community (Spain). Journal of Infection 49, 152-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2004.01.016 PMid:15236923

25. Macpherson C. N. (2013). The epidemiology and public health importance of toxocariasis: A zoonosis of global importance. International Journal for Parasitology 43, 999–1008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2013.07.004 PMid:23954435

26. Aissi, M., Harhoura, KH., Gaid Hamrioui, S.B. (2009). Preliminary study on the prevalence of fascioliasis due to F. hepatica in some cattle farms of northern Algeria (Mitidja). Bulletin of Exotic Pathology Society 102, 177-178.

27. Mrifeg, R., Belghyti, K., El kharrim, K., Laamri, M., Boukbal, M. (2012). Survey on bovine fascioliasis in the commune of khnichet (Morocco). World Journal of Biological Research 5 (1): 13-18.

28. Mekroud, A., Benakhla, A., Vignoles, P., Rondeleaud, D. (2004). Preliminary studies on the prevalences of natural fasciolosis in cattle, sheep, and the host snail Galba truncatula in north-eastern Algeria. Parasitology Research 92, 502-505. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-004-1072-1 PMid:14999466

29. Howell, A., Baylis, M., Smith, R., Pinchbeck, G., Williams, D. (2015). Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medecine 121 (1-2): 41–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.05.013 PMid:26093971 PMCid:PMC4528078

30. Lotfy, W.M., Brant, S.V., Ashmawy, K.I., Devkota, R., Mkoji, G.M., Loker E.S. (2010). A molecular approach for identification of paramphistomes from Africa and Asia. Veterinary Parasitology 174, 234–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.08.027 PMid:20880634

31. Dinnik, J A, Dinnik, N. (1962). The growth of Paramphistomum microbothrium Fischoeder to maturity and its longevity in cattle. Bulletin of Epizootic Diseases of Africa 10, 27–31.

32. Okafor, F.C., Mbata, G., Anosike, J. (1988). Studies on Paramphistomum cervi (Schrank, 1790) infections of ruminants in Imo State, Nigeria with special reference to the role-played by Bulinus b. forskalii (Ehrenberg) in their transmission. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 36, 142–146.

33. Borthakur, S.K., Das, M. (2005). Incidence of monieziosis in cattle and buffalo calves of Assam. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 19 (2): 173-174.

34. Beugnet, F., Polack, B., Dang, H. (2004). Coproscopy techniques. In: Beugnet F. (Ed.), Coproscopy atlas (pp 35-44). Clichy: Kalianxis.

35. Lasen, B. (2009). Epidemiological diagnosis and control of bovine coccidiosis in Estonia. Veterinary thesis, University of Natural Sciences of Eesti Maaülikool, Estonia. https://dspace.emu.ee/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10492/127/Thesis_Brian_Lassen.pdf?sequence=1

36. Vassilev, G.D. (1999). Prevalence of internal parasite infections of cattle in the communal farming areas of Mashonaland east province, Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 30, 1–17.

37. Waruiru, R.M., Kyvsgaard, N.C., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Bøgh, H.O., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M. (2000). Prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccidial infections in dairy cattle in Central Kenya. Veterinary Research Communications 24, 39–53. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006325405239 PMid:10703753

38. Dillard, K.J., Saari, S.A., Anttila, M. (2007). Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Finnish kennel. Acta Veterinary Scandinavia 49, 37-42. https://doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-49-37 PMid:18076758 PMCid:PMC2225404

39. Anene, B.M., Onyekwodiri, E.O., Chime, A.B., Anika, S.M. (1994). A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle of southeastern Nigeria. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 20, 297–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-5877(94)90062-0

40. Matjila, P.T., Penzhorn, B.L. (2002). Occurrence and diversity of bovine coccidia at three localities in South Africa. Veterinary Parasitology 104, 93–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(01)00605-7

41. Cornelissen, A.W.C.A., Verstegen, R., Van Den Brand, H., Perie, N.M., Eysker, M., Lam, T.J.G.M., Pijpers A. (1995). An observational study of Eimeria species in housed cattle on Dutch dairy farms. Veterinary Parasitology 56, 7–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4017(94)00671-X

42. Munyua, W.K., Ngotho, J.W. (1990). Prevalence of Eimeria species in cattle in Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology 15, 163-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4017(90)90126-V

43. Dorchies P., Duncan J., Losson B., Alzieu J.P. (2012). Parasitic diseases inducing digestive disorders (Protozooses). In: MED’COM (Ed.), Vademecum of clinical parasitology of cattle (pp. 342-421). Paris: Med’Com. PMCid:PMC3353109

44. Connan, R.M. (1976). Effect of lactation on the immune response to gastrointestinal nematodes. Veterinary Record 99, 76–477. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.99.24.476

45. Hammerberg, B., Lamm, W.D. (1980). Changes in periparturient faecal egg counts in beef cows calving in the spring. American Journal of Veterinary Research 41, 1686–1689. PMid:7224299

46. Pfukenyi, D.M., Mukaratirwa, S., Willingham, A.L., Monrad, J. (2007). Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and Lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 74, 129–142. https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v74i2.132

47. Pandey, V.S., Chitate, F., Nyanzunda, T.M. (1993). Epidemiological observations on gastro-intestinal nematodes in communal land cattle from the highveld of Zimbabwe. Veterinary Parasitology 51, 99–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4017(93)90200-7

48. Niranjan, K. Thakur, K. Sh. R., Anju, V., Veer Singh, R. (2013). Internal parasite management in grazing livestock. Journal of Parasitic Disease 37 (2): 151–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-012-0215-z PMid:24431559 PMCid:PMC3793100

49. Rahmann, G., Seip, H. (2007). Alternative management strategies to prevent and control endo-parasite diseases in sheep and goat farming systems-a review of the recent scientific knowledge. Landbauforschung Völkenrode 57, 75–88.

50. Cheepsattayakorn, A., Cheepsattayakorn, R. (2014). Parasitic pneumonia and lung involvement. Biomed Research International 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/874021 PMid:24995332 PMCid:PMC4068046

51. Alzieu, J.P., Dorchies, P. (2007). Reemergence of cattle paramphistomiasis in France: current review of epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis. Bulletin of Academy Veterinarian of France 160 (2): 93-99. https://doi.org/10.4267/2042/47872

52. Schelcher, F., Guillot, J. (2008). General parasitic diseases: Coccidiosis bovine disease. In: institutes breeding (Ed.), Cattle diseases 4th edition (pp. 131-135). Paris: France Agricole.

Macedonian Veterinary Review

The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Skopje at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.32

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.195
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.387

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 205 205 29
PDF Downloads 117 117 38