General Anesthesia Effect on Acid Base and Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Levels in Relation to Anesthetic Risk in Dogs

Open access


The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of general anesthesia on selected blood parameters in 53 surgical patients belonging to five ASA groups. The venous blood pH during the preoperative period was under physiological values only in the ASA V group of dogs. The lowest average values of pH levels were found in all ASA groups during the 30th minute of the surgical procedure. The pre-operative measurements revealed the average concentration of calcium in the blood serum below the physiological range in the groups with higher anesthetic risk, ASA III, IV and V. Most dogs with hypocalcemia during the whole monitored period were in the ASA III group (69.2%). After premedication and sedation a decrease in the concentration of calcium in all groups was observed, except for the ASA IV group. Changes in the concentration of calcium were significant in the ASA II group (P ≤ 0.01). Between the groups, there were no significant differences reported in calcium concentrations during the monitored period. The lowest average value of phosphorus concentration was recorded in the ASA III group and the highest in the ASA V group. In the postoperative period the increase in phosphorus concentrations was observed in all groups except ASA III. Acidaemia, hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphatemia may present a potential risk mostly in endangered animals, so additional monitoring of these parameters, along with commonly used anesthetic monitoring, is essential and might be significantly helpful.

1. Brodbelt, D. (2009). Perioperative mortality in small animal anaesthesia. Vet J. 182, 152–161. PMid:18658000

2. Harvey, R.C. (1999). Anaesthetic emergencies and complications. In: Seymour CH., Gleed R. (Ed.), Manual of small animal anaesthesia and analgesia (pp. 257). BSAVA. PMid:10474515 PMCid:PMC501328

3. Wilson, D.V. (1992). Anesthesia for patients with diaphragmatic-hernia and severe dyspnea. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim. Pract. 22, 456–459.

4. Byrne, A.J. (2007). Monitoring. In: A.R. Aitkenhead (Ed.), Textbook of anaesthesia. 5th ed. (pp. 858). Churchill Livingstone.

5. Shiber, J.R., Mattu, A. (2002). Serum phosphate abnormalities in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 23, 395–400.

6. Morisaki, H., Sibbald, W.J. (2004). Tissue oxygen delivery and the microcirculation. Crit Care Clin. 20, 213–223. PMid:15135461

7. Catinella, F.P., Cunningham, J.N., Strauss, E.D., Adams, P.X., Laschinger, J.C., Spencer, F.C. (1983). Variations in total and ionized calcium during cardiac surgery. J Cardiovasc Surg. 24, 593–602.

8. Cote, C.J. (1987). Depth of halothane anesthesia potentiates citrate-induced ionized hypocalcemia and adverse cardiovascular events in dogs. Anesthesiology 67, 676–680. PMid:3674467

9. Lepage, R., Lepage, G., Racicot, C. (1999). Hypocalcemia induced during major and minor abdominal surgery in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 84, 2654–2658. PMid:10443655

10. Aguilera, I.M., Vaughan, R.S. (2000). Calcium and the anesthetists. Anaesthesia 55, 779–790. PMid:10947693

11. Lund, E.M., Armstrong, P.J., Kirk, C.A., Klausner, J.S. (2006). Prevalence and risk factors for obesity in adult dogs from private US veterinary practices. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med. 4, 177–186.

12. Hall, L.W. (2001). General considerations. In: L.W. Hall, K.W. Clarke, C.M. Trim (Ed.), Veterinary anaesthesia. 10th ed. (pp. 1–26). Saunders. PMCid:PMC101120

13. Tučková, M. (2011). Biochemical profile of dog and cat. In: Team of authors. Practical guide for veterinary doctors (pp. 7–107). Veterinary Chamber of the Slovak Republic.

14. Kučera, J. (2008). Urinary system. In: M. Kozák (Ed.), Diseases of dogs and cats (internal, infectious, parasitary). Košice: University of veterinary medicine.

15. Kuo, W.C., Keegan, R.D. (2004). Comparative cardiovascular, analgesic, and sedative effects of medetomidine, medetomidine-hydromorphone, and medetomidine-butorphanol in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 65, 931–937. PMid:15281651

16. Lerche, P., Muir, W.W. (2004). Effect of medetomidine on breathing and inspiratory drive in conscious dogs. Am J Vet Res. 65, 720–734. PMid:15198209

17. Raekallio, M.J., Räihä, M.P., Alanen, M.H., Sarén, N.M., Tuovio, T.A. (2009). Effects of medetomidine, L-methadone, and their combination on arterial blood gases in dogs. Vet Anaest Analg. 36, 158–161. PMid:19239654

18. Mason, R. (1994). Anesthesia data book: A clinical practice compendium. 2nd ed. (pp. 241–243). Churchill Livingstone. PMid:8035910

19. Haleem, S., Ansari, M.M., Shakoor, A., Bano, S. (1990). Prospective study of changes in serum calcium after diethylether anesthesia. Indian J Med Res. 92, 192–194. PMid:2401540

20. Hysing, E.S., Chelly, J.E., Jacobson, L., Doursout, M.F., Merin, R.G. (1990). Cardiovascular effects of acute changes in extracellular ionized calcium concentration induced by citrate and CaCl2 infusions in chronically instrumented dogs, conscious and during enflurane, halothane, and isoflurane anesthesia. Anesthesia 72, 100–104.

21. Grubb, T.L., Benson, G.J., Foreman, J.H., Constable, P.D., Thurmon, J.C., Olson, W.O., Tranquilli, W.J., Davis, L.E. (1999). Hemodynamic effects of ionized calcium in horses anesthetized with halothane or isoflurane. Am J Vet Res. 60, 1430–1435. PMid:10566822

22. Brainard, B.M., Campbell, V.L., Drobatz, K.J., Perkowski, S.Z. (2007). The effect of surgery and anesthesia on blood magnesium and calcium concentrations in canine and feline patients. Vet Anaesth Analg. 34, 89–98. PMid:17316389

23. Macintire, D.K. (1995) Emergency therapy of diabetic crisis: insulin overdose, diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 25, 639–650.

24. Vaden, S.L., Levine, J., Breitschwerdt, E.B. (1997). A retrospective case control of acute renal failure in 99 dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 11, 58–64. PMid:9127291

25. King, L.G., Wohl, J.S., Manning, A.M., Hackner, S.G., Raffe, M.R., Maislin, G. (2001). Evaluation of the survival prediction index as a model of risk stratification for clinical research in dogs admitted to intensive care units at four locations. Am J Vet Res. 62, 948–954. PMid:11400855

26. Otto, K.A., Weber, B.P., Jacobi, M., Hedrich, H.J. (1997). Retrospective evaluation of cardiopulmonary and acid-base variables during long-term balanced anesthesia for experimental surgery in dogs. Lab Anim Sci. 47, 624–631. PMid:9433699

27. Gronert, G.A., Haskins, S.C., Steffey, E.P. (1998). Plasma electrolyte and metabolite concentrations associated with pentobarbital or pentobarbital-propofol anesthesia during three weeks' mechanical ventilation and intensive care in dogs. Lab Anim Sci. 48, 513–519. PMid:10090067

28. Gonzáles-Gil, A., Illera, J.C., Silván, G., Illera, M. (2003). Effect of the anaesthetic/tranquillizer treatment on selected plasma biochemical parameters in NZW rabbits. Lab Anim. 37, 155–161. PMid:12689427

29. Gonzáles-Gil, A., Silván, G., Villa, A., Millán, P., Martínez-Fernández, L., Illera, J.C. (2010). Serum biochemical response to inhalant anesthetics in New Zealand white rabbits. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 49, 52–56.

30. Schropp, D.M, Kovacic, J. (2007). Phosphorus and phosphate metabolism in veterinary patients. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 17, 127–134.

31. Ganong, W.F. (2001). Review of medical physiology. 20th ed, (pp. 373–389). McGraw Hill.

32. Schropp, D.M, Kovacic, J. (2007). Phosphorus and phosphate metabolism in veterinary patients. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 17, 127–134.

Macedonian Veterinary Review

The Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Skopje at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.32

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.195
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.387


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 126 126 16
PDF Downloads 55 55 7