Gierałtów versus Śnieżnik gneisses - what is the real difference?

Open access

Gierałtów versus Śnieżnik gneisses - what is the real difference?

Structural and petrographic study applied to the gneisses from the eastern part of the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome, indicate that two different types of gneiss are present. The Śnieżnik gneisses are porphyrithic granites, constricted and sheared into L-S tectonites, most commonly with augens; the Gierałtów gneisses are sheared migmatites, porphyroblastic gneisses and banded gneisses, with two sets of metamorphic foliation, intrafolial folds and lensoid leucosome aggregates or metamorphic porphyroblasts. Both lithologies were later zonally sheared and transformed into more or less deformationally advanced mylonites, difficult to be distinguished from one of the two types. Identification of the Śnieżnik and Gierałtów gneisses is possible only between zones of the late (Variscan) shearing, in which the original, pre-kinematic structures are preserved.

Aleksandrowski, P., Kryza, R., Mazur, S., Pin, C. & Zalasiewicz, J.A., 2000. The Polish Sudetes: Caledonian or Variscan? Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 90, 127-146.

Aleksandrowski, P. & Mazur, S., 2002. Collage tectonics in the northeasternmost part of the Variscan Belt: the Sudetes, Bohemian Massif. [In:] J.A. Winchester, T.C. Pharaoh & J. Verniers (Eds): Palaeozoic amalgamation of central Europe. Geological Society of London Special Publications 201, 237-277.

Arima, M. & Edgar, A.D., 1983. A high pressure experimental study on a magnesian-rich leucite-lamproite from the West Kimberley area, Australia: petrogenetic implications. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 84, 228-234.

Barbarin, B. & Didier, J., 1991. Macroscopic features of mafic microgranular enclaves. [In:] J. Didier & B. Barbarin (Eds): Enclaves and granite petrology. Developments in Petrology (Elsevier, Amsterdam) 13, 253-263.

Berman, R.G., 1990. Mixing properties of Ca-Mg-Fe-Mn garnets. American Mineralogist 75, 328-344.

Bhattacharya, A., Mohanty, L., Maji, A., Sen, S.K. & Raith, M., 1982. Non-ideal mixing in the phlogopite-annite binary: constrains from experimental data on Mg-Fe partitioning and reformulation of the biotite-garnet geothermometer. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 111, 87-93.

Borkowska, M., 1996. P-T conditions of metamorphism in gneisses of the Śnieżnik region - Sudetes, Poland. Terra Nostra 96, 26-30.

Borkowska, M., Choukroune, P., Hameurt, J. & Martineau, F., 1990. A geochemical investigation of age, significance and structural evolution of the Caledonian-Variscan granite-gneisses of the Śnieżnik metamorphic area (central Sudetes, Poland). Geologia Sudetica 25, 1-27.

Brodie, K., Fetted, D. & Harte, B., 2007. Structural terms including fault rocks terms. [In:] D. Fettes, & J. Desmons (Eds): Metamorphic rocks - a classification and glossary of terms - recommendations of the International Union of Geological Sciences Subcommission on the Systematics of Metamorphic Rocks. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge U.K., 24-31.

Bröcker, M., Klemd, R., Cosca, M., Brock, W., Larionov, A.N. & Rodionov, N., 2009. The timing of eclogite facies metamorphism and migmatization in the Orlica-Śnieżnik complex, Bohemian Massif: constraints from a multimethod geochronological study. Journal of Metamorphic Petrology 27, 385-403.

Dasgupta, S., Sengupta, P., Guha, D. & Fukuoka, M., 1991. A refined garnet-biotite Fe-Mg exchange geothermometer and its application in amphibolites and granulites. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 109, 130-137.

Didier, J., 1991. The various types of enclaves in the Hercynian granitoids of the Massif Central, France. [In:] J. Didier & B. Barbarin (Eds): Enclaves and granite petrology. Developments in Petrology (Elsevier. Amsterdam) 13, 47-63.

Don, J., 1964. Góry Złote i Krowiarki jako elementy składowe metamorfiku Śnieżnika [The Złote and Krowiarki Mts. as structural elements of the Śnieżnik metamorphic massif]. Geologia Sudetica 1, 79-117.

Don, J., 1991. Seria Młynowca oraz problem następstwa gnejsów w świetle tektoniki fałdowej metamorfiku Śnieżnika [The Młynowiec Series and the problem of superposition of the gneisses in the light of fold tectonics of the Śnieżnik Metamorphic Unit]. [In:] M. Dumicz (Ed.): Następstwo serii skalnych masywu Śnieżnika w świetle kartografii geologicznej, analizy strukturalnej i badań radiometrycznych [Superposition of rock series from the Śnieżnik Massif in the light of geological mapping, structural analysis and radiometric investigations]. Materiały konferencji terenowej, Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 42-53.

Don, J., 2001. The relationship between the Gierałtów migmatites and the Śnieżnik granitogneisses within the Kletno fold. Prace Specjalne Polskiego Towarzystwa Mineralogicznego 19, 189-194.

Don, J., Dumicz, M., Wojciechowska, I. & Żelaźniewicz, A., 1990. Lithology and tectonics of the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome, Sudetes - recent state of knowledge. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 197, 159-188.

Don, J., Skácel, J. & Gotowała, R., 2003. The boundary zone of the East and West Sudetes on the 1:50 000 scale geological map of the Velké Vrbno, Staré Město and Śnieżnik Metamorphic Units. Geologia Sudetica 35, 25-59.

Dumicz, M., 1988. Strefa tektoniczna Złoty Stok-Skrzynka w świetle analizy mezostrukturalnej metamorfiku Lądka-Śnieżnika [The Złoty Stok-Skrzynka structural element in the light of a mesostrucrtural analysis of the Lądek-Śnieżnik metamorphic terrain]. Geologia Sudetica 23, 83-106.

Dumicz, M., 1989. Następstwo serii gnejsowych masywu Śnieżnika w świetle analizy mezostrukturalnej wybranych obszarów w jednostkach geologicznych Międzygórza i Gierałtowa [The succession of the Śnieżnik Mountains gneisses in the light of a mesostructural analysis of some areas of the Międzygórze and Gierałtów units]. Geologia Sudetica 24, 139-189.

Ferry, J.M. & Spear, F.S., 1978. Experimental calibration of the partitioning of Fe and Mg between biotite and garnet. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 66, 113-117.

Fischer, G., 1936. Der Bau des Glatzer Schneegebirges. Jahrbuch der Preußischen Geologischen Landesanstalt 56, 712-732.

Forbes, W.C. & Flower, M.F.J., 1974. Phase relations of titan-phlogopite, K2Mg4TiAl2Si6O20(OH)4: a refractory phase in the upper mantle? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 22, 60-66.

Franke, W. & Żelaźniewicz, A., 2000. The eastern termination of the Variscides: terrane correlation and kinematic evolution. [In:] W. Franke, V. Haak, O. Oncken & D. Tanner (Eds): Orogenic processes: quantification and modelling in the Variscan belt. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 179, 63-86.

Ganguly, J. & Saxena, S., 1984. Mixing properties of aluminosilicate garnets: constraints from natural and experimental data, and applications to geothermobarometry. American Mineralogist 69, 88-97.

Gawlikowska, E. & Opletal, M., 1997. Mapa geologicznoturystyczna. [Králický Sněžník - Masyw Śnieżnika - a geological-touristic map]. Český geologický ústav, Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny.

Gunia, T., 1996. Problem wieku marmurów okolicy Stronia Śląskiego na podstawie mikroskamieniałości (Sudety) [The problem of the age of the marbles from the Stronie Śląskie area on the basis of microfossils]. Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis, Prace Geologiczno-Mineralogiczne 62, 5-48.

Grześkowiak, A., 2004. Genesis of the diversification of the Międzygórze structure gneisses, Śnieżnik Metamorphic Unit. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań.

Grześkowiak, A. & Żelaźniewicz, A., 2002. On the significance of gneissic enclaves in the 500 Ma metagranite, the Lądek-Śnieżnik Metamorphic Unit, the West Sudetes. Geolines 14, 28-29.

Grześkowiak, A., Żelaźniewicz, A. & Fanning, M., 2005. Early Palaeozoic syntectonic migmatization preceded Variscan metamorphism in the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome, Sudetes: U-Pb SHRIMP evidence. Geolines 19, 46-48.

Hoinkes, G., 1986. Effect of grossular-content in garnet on the partitioning of Fe and Mg between garnet and biotite. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 92, 393-399.

Jastrzębski, M., 2005. The tectonometamorphic evolution of the marbles in the Lądek-Śnieżnik Metamorphic Unit, West Sudetes. Geologia Sudetica 37, 1-26.

Jastrzębski, M., Żelaźniewicz, A., Nowak, I., Murtezi, M. & Larionov, A., 2010. Protolith age and provenance of metasedimentary rocks in Variscan allochthon units: U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data from the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome, West Sudetes. Geological Magazine 147, 416-433.

Koszela, S., 1997. Petrogeneza marmurów z południowowschodniej części metamorfiku Śnieżnika (Sudety) [Petrogenesis of the marbles from the south-eastern part of the Śnieżnik Metamorphic Massif (Sudetes)]. Geologia Sudetica 30, 58-115.

Kozłowska-Koch, M., 1973. Polimetamorfifity strefy tektonicznej Złoty Stok-Skrzynka w Sudetach [Polymetamorphic rocks of the Złoty Stok - Skrzynka dislocation zone]. Geologia Sudetica 8, 121-160.

Kröner, A., Jaeckel, P., Hegner, E. & Opletal, M., 2001. Single zircon ages and whole-rock Nd isotopic systematic of early Paleozoic granitoid gneisses from the Czech and Polish Sudetes (Jizerske hory, Karkonosze Mountains and Orlica-Śnieżnik Complex). International Journal of Earth Science 90, 304-324.

Kumar, S., Rino, V. & Pal, A.B., 2004. Field evidence of magma mixing from microgranular enclaves hosted in Palaeoproterozoic Malanjkhand granitoids, central India. Gondwana Research 7, 539-548.

Lange, U., Bröcker, M., Mezger, K. & Don, J., 2002. Geochemistry and Rb-Sr geochronology of a ductile shear zone in the Orlica-Śnieżnik dome (West Sudetes, Poland). International Journal of Earth Science 91, 1005-1016.

Lange, U., Bröcker, M., Armstrong, R., Żelaźniewicz, A., Trapp, E. & Mezger K., 2005. The gneisses of the Orlica-Śnieżnik complex (West Sudetes, Poland): geochemical characteristics, the importance of pre-Variscan migmatisation and constraints on the cooling history. Journal of the Geological Society of London 162, 973-984.

Matte, Ph., Maluski, H., Rajlich, P. & Franke, W., 1990. Terrane boundaries in the Bohemian Massif: result of large-scale Variscan shearing. Tectonophysics 177, 151-170.

Maury, R.C. & Didier, J., 1991. Xenoliths and the role of assimilation. [In:] J. Didier & B. Barbarin (Eds): Enclaves and granite petrology. Developments in Petrology (Elsevier, Amsterdam) 13, 529-542.

Massonne, H.-J. & Schreyer, W. 1987. Phengite geobarometry based on the limiting assemblage with K-feld-spar, phlogopite, and quartz. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 96, 212-224.

Mehnert, K.R., 1968. Migmatites and the origin of granitic rocks. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 393 pp.

Montel, J.M. & Cheilletz, A., 1989. Nature and composition of restites in the Velay granite (France). Terra Abstracts 1, 282.

Murtezi, M., 2006. The acid metavolcanic rocks of the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome (Sudetes): their origin and tectono-metamorphic evolution. Geologia Sudetica 38, 1-38.

Oberc, J., 1957. Zagadnienia geologii metamorfifiku zachodniej części Gór Bialskich i obniżenia Stronia Śląskiego [Issues from the geology of the Metamorphic Unit of the Bialskie Mountains and the Stronie Śląskie area]. Przewodnik do XXX Zjazdu PTG w Ziemi Kłodzkiej (Duszniki Zdrój 19-21 maja 1957), 72-89.

Oberc, J., 1972. Budowa geologiczna Polski. Tektonika. Sudety i obszary przyległe [Geology of Poland. Tectonics. Sudetes and the adjacent areas]. IV, 2. Wydawnictwa Geologiczne Warszawa, 307 pp.

Oliver, G.J.H., Corfu, F. & Krogh, T.E., 1993. U-Pb ages from SW Poland: evidence for Caledonian suture zone between Baltica and Gondwana. Journal of the Geological Society of London 150, 355-369.

Opletal, M., Domečka, K. & Čech, S., 1980. Geologie Orlických hor [Geology of the Orlické hory Mts.] (in Czech with extended English summary). Geological Survey, Praha, 202 pp.

Passchier, C. & Trouw, R.A.J., 1996. Microtectonics. Springer-Verlag. Berlin, 289 pp.

Paterson, S., Pignotta, G. & Vernon, R., 2004. The significance of microgranitoid enclave shapes and orientations. Journal of Structural Geology 26, 1465-1481.

Poli, G. & Tommasini, S., 1991. Model for the origin and significance of microgranular enclaves in calc-alkaline granitoids. Journal of Petrology 32, 657-666.

Přikryl, R., Schulmann, K. & Melka, R., 1996. A perpendicular fabrics in the Orlické hory gneisses (western part of the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome, Bohemian Massif) due to high temperature E-W deformational event and late lower temperature N-S overprint. Journal of Czech Geological Society 41, 156-166.

Ramsay, J.G. & Huber, M.I., 1987. The techniques of modern structural geology 2: Folds and fractures. Academic Press, London, 391 pp.

Schulmann, K. & Gayer, R., 2000. A model for a continental accretionary wedge developed by oblique collision: the NE Bohemian Massif. Journal of the Geological Society of London 157, 401-416.

Sawicki, L., 1995. Geological map of Lower Silesia with adjacent Czech and German territories 1:100 000. Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warszawa.

Smulikowski, K. 1960. Evolution of the granite-gneisses in the Śnieżnik Mountains - East Sudetes. Report of the 21 International Geological Congress (Copenhagen) 14, 120-130.

Smulikowski, K., 1979. Ewolucja polimetamorficzna krystaliniku Śnieżnika Kłodzkiego i Gór Złotych w Sudetach [Polymetamorphic evolution of the crystalline complex of Śnieżnik and Góry Złote Mounains in the Sudetes]. Geologia Sudetica 14, 7-76.

Spear, F.S., 1993. Metamorphic phase equilibria and pressure-temperature-time paths. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 799 pp.

Teisseyre, H., 1957. Budowa geologiczna okolic Międzygórza [Geology of the Międzygórze area]. [In:] H. Teisseyre (Ed): Przewodnik do XXX Zjazdu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego w Ziemi Kłodzkiej, Duszniki Zdrój 19-21 maja 1957.

Teisseyre, H., 1964. Uwagi o ewolucji strukturalnej Sudetów [Some remarks on the structural evolution of the Sudetes]. Acta Geologica Polonica 14, 459-499.

Teisseyre, H., 1980. Precambrian in south-western Poland. Geologia Sudetica 15, 7-40.

Tronnes, R.G., Edgar, A.D. & Arima, M. 1985. A high pressure-high temperature study of TiO2 solubility in Mg-rich phlogopite: implications to phlogopite chemistry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 49, 2323-2329.

Turniak, K., Mazur, S. & Wysoczański, R., 2000. SHRIMP zircon geochronology and geochemistry of the ‘OrlicaŚnieżnik gneisses’ (Variscan belt of central Europe) and their tectonic implications. Geodinamica Acta 13, 393-312.

Vernon, R.H., 1986. Alkali feldspar megacrysts in granites - phenocrysts, not porphyroblasts. Earth-Science Reviews 23, 1-63.

Vernon, R.H., Williams, V.A. & d'Arcy, W.F., 1983. Grainsize reduction and foliation development in a deformed granitoid batholith. Tectonophysics 92, 123-145.

Vernon, R.H., 1991. Interpretation of microstructures of microgranitoid enclaves. [In:] J. Didier & B. Barbarin (Eds): Enclaves and granite petrology. Developments in Petrology (Elsevier, Amsterdam) 13, 277-293.

Wimmenauer, W. & Bryhni, I., 2007. Migmatites and related rocks. [In:] D. Fettes & J. Desmons (Eds): Metamorphic rocks. A classification and glossary of terms - recommendations of the International Union of Geological Sciences Subcommission on the Systematics of Metamorphic Rocks. Cambridge University Press, Cambrige, U.K., 43-45.

Żelaźniewicz, A., 1988. Gneisses due to irrotational extension, a case from the Sudetes, Bohemian Massif. Geologische Rundschau 77, 671-682.

Żelaźniewicz, A., Nowak, I., Larionov, A. & Presnyakov, S., 2006. Syntectonic Lower Ordovician migmatite and post-tectonic Upper Visean syenite in the western limb of the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome, West Sudetes: U-Pb SHRIMP data from zircons. Geologia Sudetica 38, 63-80.


The Journal of Adam Mickiewicz University

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.72

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.249
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.601


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 92 92 2
PDF Downloads 39 39 4