Unusual development of sandur sedimentary succession, an example from the Pleistocene of S Poland

Open access

Unusual development of sandur sedimentary succession, an example from the Pleistocene of S Poland

An atypical lithological development of outwash deposits in the Carpathians Foreland (S Poland) shows lower and middle parts of the sedimentary succession that are characterized by sinuous palaeochannels. This channel facies consists of laterally accreted sands derived from side bars. The sedimentary environment was a proglacial system of anabranching channels, presumably of anastomosed type. The outwash channel pattern was most probably controlled by the raising base level of the fluvial system. Both proglacial and extraglacial waters were dammed by a sandur within a small upland valley. Aggradation and progradation of the glaciofluvial deposits resulted in progressive rising of the dammed lake level. The low hydraulic gradient of the outwash streams resulted in a sinuous planform as well as a low-energy style of deposition. Afterwards, the rising lake water was drained off through a low watershed and the entire valley became filled with outwash sediments. The bedrock morphology thus became buried and a typical unconfined sandur with a braided channel network developed during the last phase of the glaciomarginal sedimentation (upper part of the sedimentary succession under study).

Aitken, J. F., 1998. Sedimentology of Late Devensian glaciofluvial outwash in the Don Valley, Grampian Region. Scottish Journal of Geology 34, 97-117.

Allen, J. R. L., 1965. A review of the origin and character of recent alluvial sediments. Sedimentology 5, 89-191.

Bluck, B. J., 1979. Structure of coarse grained braided stream alluvium. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 70, 181-221.

Boothroyd, J. C. & Ashley, G. M., 1975. Processes, bar morphology and sedimentary structures on braided out-wash fans, Northeastern Gulf of Alaska. [In:] Jopling, A. V. & McDonald, B. (Eds), Glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sedimentation. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication 23, 193-222.

Boothroyd, J. C. & Nummedal, D., 1978. Proglacial braided outwash: a model for humid alluvial-fan deposits. [In:] Miall, A. D. (Ed.), Fluvial Sedimentology. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 5, 641-668.

Bridge, J. S. & Lunt, I. A., 2006. Depositional models of braided rivers. [In:] Sambrook Smith, G. H., Best, J. L., Bristow, C. S. & Petts, G. E. (Eds), Braided rivers: process, deposits, ecology and management. International Association of Sedimentologists, Special Publication 36, 11-50.

Bridge, J. S., Collier, R. & Alexander, J., 1998. Large-scale structure of Calamus deposits (Nebraska, USA) revealed using ground-penetrating radar. Sedimentology 45, 977-986.

Bristow, C. S., 1993. Sedimentary structures exposed in bar tops in the Brahmaputra River, Bangladesh. [In] Best, J. L. & Bristow, C. S. (Eds), Braided rivers. Geological Society, Special Publication 75, 277-289.

Church, M., 1972. Baffin Island sandurs: a study of Arctic fluvial processes. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Canada 216, 1-208.

Dawson, M. R. & Bryant, I. D., 1987. Three-dimensional facies geometry in Pleistocene outwash sediments, Worcestershire, U. K. [In:] Ethridge, F. G. (Ed.), Recent developments in fluvial sedimentology. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 39, 191-196.

Doktor, M. & Gradziński, R., 1985. Alluvial depositional environment of coal-bearing "Mudstone Series", Upper Carboniferous, Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Studia Geologica Polonica 82, 1-67. (in Polish, with English summary)

Ferguson, R. J., 1984. The threshold between meandering and braiding. [In] Smith, K. V. H. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Hydraulic Design. Springer, Berlin, 6.15-6.29.

Ferguson, R. J., 1987. Hydraulic and sedimentary controls of channel pattern. [In:] Richards, K. S. (Ed.): River channels: environment and process. Institute of British Geographers Special Publication (Blackwell, Oxford), 18, 125-158.

Fraser, G. S., 1993. Sedimentation in an interlobate outwash stream. Sedimentary Geology 83, 53-70.

Fraser, G. S. & Cobb, J. C., 1982. Late Wisconsinan proglacial sedimentation along the West Chicago moraine in NE Illinois. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 52, 473-491.

Gibling, M. R. & Rust, B. R., 1987. Evolution of a mud-rich meander belt in the Carboniferous Morien Group, Nova Scotia, Canada. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geologists 35, 24-33.

Gibling, M. R., Nanson, G. C. & Maroulis, J. C., 1998. Anastomosing river sedimentation in the Channel Country of central Australia. Sedimentology 45, 595-619.

Gradziński, R., 1970. Sedimentation of dinosaur-bearing Upper Cretaceous deposits of the Nemegt Basin, Gobi Desert. Palaeontologia Polonica 21, 147-229.

Graham, J. R., 1981. Fluvial sedimentation in the Lower Carboniferous of Clew Bay, County Mayo, Ireland. Sedimentary Geology 30, 195-211.

Haisig, J. & Wilanowski, S., 1999. Detailed geological map of Poland 1:50 000, Tychy sheet. Polish Geological Institute, Warszawa.

Karaś-Brzozowska, C., 1963. Limit of the Middle-Polish (Saale) glaciation in the Raciborz Basin. Przegląd Geograficzny 35, 431-447. (in Polish, with English summary).

Kirschbaum, M. A. & McCabe, P. J., 1992. Controls on the accumulation of coal and on development of anastomosed fluvial systems in the Cretaceous Dakota Fm. of S Utah. Sedimentology 39, 581-598.

Klimek, K., 1972. Present-day fluvial processes and relief of the Skeidararsandur plain, Iceland. Prace Geograficzne, Polska Akademia Nauk 94, 1-139. (in Polish, with English summary)

Klimek, K. & Starkel, L., 1972. Kotliny Podkarpackie. [In:] Klimaszewski, M. (Ed.), Geomorfologia Polski, vol 1. PWN, Warszawa, 117-138.

Kotlicka, G. N. & Kotlicki, S., 1979. Geological map of Poland 1:200 000, Gliwice A sheet. Polish Geological Institute, Warszawa.

Krigström, A., 1962. Geomorphological studies of sandur plains and their braided rivers in Iceland. Geografiska Annaler 44, 328-346.

Krzyszkowski, D., 1991. Saalian sediments of the Bełchatów outcrop, central Poland. Boreas 20: 29-46.

Leopold, L. B. & Wolman, M. G., 1957. River channel patterns: braided, meandering and straight. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 282A, 1-85.

Lewandowski, J., 1982. Extent of ice sheet of Middle-Polish glaciation in the Silesian Upland. Biuletyn Instytutu Geologicznego 337, 115-142. (in Polish, with English summary)

Lewandowski, J., 1996. The main factors of Neogene and Quaternary morphogenetic evolution of the Silesian-Cracow region, S Poland. Acta Geographica Lodziensia 71, 131-148. (in Polish, with English summary)

Lunt, I. A., Bridge, J. S. & Tye, R. S., 2004. A quantitative, three-dimensional depositional model of gravelly braided rivers. Sedimentology 51, 377-414.

Makaske, B., 1998. Anastomosing rivers. Forms, processes and sediments. Nederlandse eografische Studies, 249, 285 pp.

Makaske, B., 2001. Anastomosing rivers: a review of their classification, origin and sedimentary products. Earth-Science Reviews 53, 149-196.

Makaske, B. & Nap, R. L., 1995. A transition from a braided to a meandering channel facies, showing inclined heterolithic stratification (Late Weichselian, central Netherlands). Geologie en Mijnbouw 74, 13-20.

Marren, P. M., 2005. Magnitude and frequency in proglacial rivers: a geomorphological and sedimentological perspective. Earth-Science Reviews 70, 203-251.

McCarthy, T. S., Stanistreet, I. G. & Cairncross, B., 1991. The sedimentary dynamics of active fluvial channels on the Okavango Fan, Botswana. Sedimentology 38, 471-487.

Miall, A. D., 1978. Lithofacies types and vertical profile models in braided rivers: A summary. [In:] Miall, A. D. (Ed.), Fluvial sedimentology. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 5, 597-604.

Nanson, G. C. & Knighton, A. D., 1996. Anabranching rivers: their cause, character and classification. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 21, 217-239.

Olsen, H. & Andreasen, F., 1995. Sedimentology and ground-penetrating radar characteristics of a Pleistocene sandur deposits. Sedimentary Geology 99, 1-15.

Perez-Arlucea, M., Mack, G. & Leeder, M., 2000. Reconstructing the ancestral (Plio-Pleistocene) Rio Grande in its active tectonic setting, S Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, USA. Sedimentology 47, 701-720.

Rust, B. R., 1975. Fabric and structure in glaciofluvial gravels. [In:] Jopling, A. V. & McDonald, B. C. (Eds), Glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sedimentation. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 23, 238-248.

Rust, B. R., 1978. Depositional models for braided alluvium. [In:] Miall A. D. (Ed.), Fluvial sedimentology. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 5, 605-625.

Rust, B. R. & Legun, A. S., 1983. Modern anastomosingfluvial deposits in arid central Australia, and a Carboniferous analogue in New Brunswick, Canada. [In:] Collinson, J. D. & Lewin, J. (Eds), Modern and ancient fluvial systems. International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication 6, 385-392.

Salamon, T., 2009. Origin of Pleistocene outwash plains in various topographic settings, southern Poland. Boreas 38, 362-378.

Salamon, T. & Wilanowski, S., 2003. Glacimarginalna depozycja osadów w północnej części Kotliny Oświęcimskiej [Glaciomarginal deposition in the N part of the Oświęcim Basin]. [In:] Plejstocen Kotliny Raciborsko-Oświęcimskiej na tle struktur morfotektonicznych pod łoża czwartorzędu. X Konferencja "Stratygrafia Plejstocenu Polski" Rudy 2003, 137-142.

Santos, M. L. & Stevaux, J. C., 2000. Facies and architectural analysis of channel sandy macroforms in the upper Parana river. Quaternary International 72, 87-94.

Schumm, S. A., 1981. Evolution and response of the fluvial system, sedimentologic implications. [In:] Ethridge, F. G. & Flores, R. M. (Eds), Non-marine depositional environments: models for exploration. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 31, 19-29.

Shuster, M. W. & Steidtmann, J. R., 1987. Fluvial-sandstone architecture and thrust-induced subsidence, N Green River Basin, Wyoming. [In:] Ethridge, F. G., Flores, R. M. & Harvey, M. D. (Eds), Recent developments in fluvial sedimentology. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 39, 279-285.

Singh, I. B., 1977. Bedding structures in a channel sand bar of the Ganga River near Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 47, 747-752.

Smith, D. G., 1987. Meandering river point bar lithofacies models: modern and ancient examples compared. [In:] Ethridge, F. G., Flores R. M. & Harvey M. D. (Eds), Recent developments in fluvial sedimentology. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 39, 83-91.

Smith, D. G., 1983. Anastomosed fluvial deposits: modern examples from western Canada. [In:] Collinson, J. D. & Lewin, J. (Eds), Modern and ancient fluvial systems. International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication 6, 155-168.

Smith, N. D., 1970. The braided stream depositional environment: comparison of the Platte River with some Silurian clastic rocks, north-central Appalachians. Geological Society of America Bulletin 81, 2993-3014.

Smith, N. D., McCarthy, T. S., Ellery, W. N., Merry, C. L. & Rüther, H., 1997. Avulsion and anastomosis on the panhandle region of the Okavango Fan, Botswana. Geomorphology 20, 49-65.

Teisseyre, A. K., 1992. Anastomosing rivers - processes and sedimentary models. Przegląd Geologiczny, 40, 241-248. (in Polish, with English summary)

Tooth, S. & Nanson, G. C., 1999. Anabranching rivers on the Northern Plains of arid central Australia. Geomorphology 29, 211-233.

Törnqvist, T. E., Van Ree, M. H. M. & Faessen, E. L. J. H., 1993. Longitudinal facies architectural changes of a Middle Holocene anastomosing distributary system (Rhine-Meuse delta, central Netherlands). Sedimentary Geology 85, 203-219.

Wende, R. & Nanson, G. C., 1998. Anabranching rivers: ridge-form alluvial channels in tropical N Australia. Geomorphology 22, 205-224.

Wysota, W., Lankauf, K. R., Molewski, P. & Szmańda, J., 1996. Sedimentology of the interstadial fluvial series (Rzęczkowo) of the Vistulian Glaciation exposed in the SW margin of the Chełmno Moraine Plateau. Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici, Geografia 28, 39-63. (in Polish with English summary)

Zieliński, T. & Van Loon, A. J., 2003. Pleistocene sandur deposits represent braidplains, not alluvial fans. Boreas 32, 590-611.

Geologos

The Journal of Adam Mickiewicz University

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.72

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.249
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.601


Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 136 135 12
PDF Downloads 43 43 4