Representational Systems in Zoosemiotics and Anthroposemiotics Part II: On Meta-Representation and Human Language

Open access


Following the conclusions of the previous paper (Uhlir, this issue), this paper adopts a theory that is based on the notion that the essence of language is uniquely human, with no homologue elsewhere in nature, and advances the possibility that human language is discontinuous not only within communication systems but also within representational systems. Linguistic data from disparate sources in Homo sapiens are contrasted with evidence from animals. After briefly discussing the dialectics between the mosaic approach to language and the holistic approach to an integrated left hemisphere, the paper culminates in a proposal of a general zoosemiotic theory of “Representational Systems” and a special anthroposemiotic theory of “Meta-representational Systems”.

[1] Harris, R.A., 1995. The linguistics wars. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[2] Chomsky, N., 1965. Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

[3] Chomsky, N., 1968. Language and mind. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.

[4] Chomsky, N., 1980. Rules and representations. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

[5] Chomsky, N., 1986. Knowledge of language: Its nature, origin and use. New York: Praeger.

[6] Pinker, S., 1984. Language learnability and language development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[7] Pinker, S., 1995. The language instinct: How the mind creates language. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.

[8] Berwick, R.C., 1985. The acquisition of syntactic knowledge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

[9] Lightfoot, D., 1982. The language lottery: Toward a biology of grammars. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

[10] van der Hulst, H., 2010. Re recursion. In van der Hulst, H. (Ed.), Recursion and human language. Germany: Mouton de Gruyter

[11] van der Hulst, H., 2010. A note on recursion in phonology. In van der Hulst, H. (Ed.), Recursion and human language. Germany: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 285–300.

[12] van der Hulst, H. (Ed.) 2010. Recursion and human language. Germany: Mouton de Gruyter.

[13] Karlsson, F., 2010. Recursion and iteration. In van der Hulst, H. (Ed.), Recursion and human language. Germany: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 43–68.

[14] Perfors, A., Tenenbaum, J., Gibson, E., et al., 2010. How recursive is language? A Bayesian exploration. In van der Hulst, H. (Ed.), 2010. Recursion and human language. Germany: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 159–178.

[15] Jackendoff, R., 1972. Semantic interpretation in generative grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

[16] Jackendoff, R., 1977. X-bar syntax: A study of phrase structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

[17] Bever, T.G., 1970. The cognitive basis for linguistic structures. In Hayes, J.R. (Ed.), Cognition and the development of language. New York: Wiley and Sons, pp. 279–362.

[18] Sebeok, T.A., Rosenthal, R. (Eds.) 1981. The Clever Hans phenomenon: Communication with horses, whales, apes, and people. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 364.

[19] Umiker-Sebeok, J., Sebeok, T.A. (Eds.) 1980. Speaking of apes: A critical anthology of two-way communication with man. Berlin: Springer.

[20] Terrace, H., Petitto, L.A., Sanders, R.J., et al., 1979. Can an ape create a sentence? Science, 206 4421, 891–902.

[21] Terrace, H., Petitto, L.A., Sanders, R.J., et al., 1980. On the grammatical capacity of apes. In Nelson, K. (Ed.), Children’s language, vol. 2. New York: Gardner Press, pp. 371–495.

[22] Terrace, H., Petitto, L.A., Sanders, R.J., et al., 1981. Ape language. Science, 211, 87–88.

[23] Premack, D., 1983. The codes of man and beasts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6(1), 125–37.

[24] Premack, D., 1984. Possible general effects of language training on the Chimpanzee. Human Development, 27, 268–281.

[25] Premack, D., 1988. Minds with and without language. In Weiskrantz, L. (Ed.), Thought without language. A Fyssen Foundation Symposium. New York: Calderon Press, 46–65.

[26] Seidenberg, M.S., Petitto, L.A., 1979. Signing behavior in apes: A critical review. Cognition, 7, 177–215.

[27] Seidenberg, M.S., Petitto, L.A., 1981. Ape signing: Problems of method and interpretation. In Sebeok, T.A., Rosenthal, R. (Eds.), The Clever Hans phenomenon: Communication with horses, whales, apes, and people. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 364, pp. 94–114.

[28] Sebeok, T.A., 1980. Looking in the destination for what should have been sought in the source. In Umiker-Sebeok, J., Sebeok, T.A. (Eds.), Speaking of apes: A critical anthology of two-way communication with man. Berlin: Springer, pp. 407–428.

[29] Sebeok, T.A., 1981. The ultimate enigma of “Clever Hans”: The union of nature and culture. In Sebeok, T.A., Rosenthal, R. (Eds.), The Clever Hans phenomenon: Communication with horses, whales, apes, and people. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 364, pp. 199–205.

[30] Wallman, J., 1992. Aping language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

[31] Anderson, S.R., 2004. Doctor Dolittle’s delusion: Animals and the uniqueness of human language. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

[32] Tomasello, M.E., 1994. Can an ape understand a sentence? A review of language comprehension in ape and child by E. D. Savage-Rumbaugh et al. Language and Communication, 14, 377–390.

[33] Tomasello, M.E., 1999. The cultural origins of human cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[34] Tomasello, M.E., 2007. If They’re so good at grammar, Then why don’t they talk? Hind from apes’ and humans’ use of gestures. Language, Learning and Development, 3, 133–156.

[35] Pinker, S., 1994. How could a child use verb syntax to learn verb semantics? Lingua, 92, 377–410.

[36] Passingham, R.E., 1979. Specialization and the language areas. In Steklis, H., Raleigh, M.J. (Eds.), Neurobiology of social communication in primates. New York: Academic Press, pp. 221–256.

[37] Anderson, S.R., Lightfoot, D.W., 2002. The language organ: Linguistics as cognitive physiology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

[38] Gleitman, L.R., Gleitman, H., Landau, B., et al., 1988. Where learning begins: Initial representations for langage learning. In Newmeyer, F.J. (Ed.), Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey vol. III. Language: Psychological and biological aspects. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 150–193.

[39] Gleitman, L.R., 1986. Biological dispositions to learn language. In Demopoulos, W., Madras, A. (Eds.), Language leasing and koncept acquisition: Foundational issues. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, pp. 3–28.

[40] Bowerman, M., 1973. Early syntactic development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

[41] Clark, H.H., Clark, E.V., 1977. Psychology and language. New York: Hartcourt Brace.

[42] Cromer, R., 1981. Reconceptualizing language acquisition and cognitive development. In Scheifelbusch, R.L., Bricker, D.D. (Eds.), 1981. Early language: Acquisition and intervention. Baltimore: University Park Press, pp. 53–102.

[43] de Villiers, J.G., de Villiers, P.A., 1978. Early language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[44] Newport, E.L., Gletiman, H., Gleitman, L.R., 1977. Mother, i’d rather do it myself: Some effects and non-effects of maternal speech style. In Snow, C.E., Ferguson, C.A. (Eds.), Talking to children: Language input and acquisition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 109–149.

[45] Josse, G., Mazoyer, B., Crivello, F., et al., 2003. Left planum temporale: An anatomical marker of left hemispheric specialization for language comprehension. Cognitive Brain Research, 18(1), 1–14.

[46] Josse, G., Hervé, P., Crivello, F., et al., 2006. Hemispheric specialization for language: Brain volume matters. Brain Research, 1068(1), 184–193.

[47] Josse, G., Tzourio-Mazoyer, N., 2004. Hemispheric specialization for language. Brain Research Reviews, 44(1), 1–12.

[48] Witelson, S.F., 1977. Anatomic asymmetry in the temporal lobes: Its documentation, phylogenesis and relationship to functional asymmetry. In Diamond, S.J., Blizard, D.A. (Eds.), Evolution and lateralization of the brain. Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 299, pp. 328–354.

[49] Chomsky, N., 1995. The minimalist program. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

[50] Boeckx, C., 2006. Linguistic minimalism: Origins, concepts, methods and aims. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[51] Boeckx, C. (Ed.) 2006. Minimalist essays. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

[52] Al-Mutairi, F.R., 2014. The minimalist program: The nature and plausibility of Chomsky’s biolinguistics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

[53] Berwick, R.C., Chomsky, N., 2016. Why only us: Language and evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

[54] Chomsky, N., 1999. Derivation by phase. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

[55] Hauser, M., Chomsky, N., Fitch, T., 2002. The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science, 2985598, 1569–1579.

[56] Fitch, T., Hauser, M., 2004. Computational constraints on syntactic processing in a Nonhuman primate. Science, 303(56), 377–380.

[57] Hauser, M., Fitch, T., 2003. What are the uniquely human components of the language faculty? In Christiansen, M., Kirby, S. (Eds.), Language evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 158–181.

[58] Fitch, T., Hauser, M., Chomsky, N., 2005. The evolution of the language faculty: Clarifications and implications. Cognition, 97(2), 179–210.

[59] Enard, W., Przeworski, M., Fisher, S.E., et al., 2002. Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature, 4186900, 869–872.

[60] Vargha-Khadem, F., Watkins, K., Alcock, K., et al., 1995. Praxic and nonverbal cognitive deficits in a large family with a genetically transmitted speech and language disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 92(3), 930–933.

[61] Vargha-Khadem, F., Gadian, D.G., Copp, A., et al., 2005. FOXP2 and the neuroanatomy of speech and language. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(2), 131–138.

[62] MacDermot, K.D., Bonora, E., Sykes, N., et al., 2005. Identification of FOXP2 truncation as a novel cause of developmental speech and language deficits. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 76(6), 1074–1080.

[63] Krause, J., Alueza-Fox, C., Orlando, L., et al., 2007. The derived FOXP2 variant of modern humans was shared with Neandertals. Current Biology, 17(21), 1908–1912.

[64] Christiansen, M., Kirby, S. (Eds.) 2003. Language evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[65] Di Sciullo, A.M., Boeckx, C. (Eds.) 2011. The biolinguistic enterprise: New perspectives on the evolution and nature of the human language faculty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[66] Pinker, S., Jackendoff, R., 2005. The faculty of language: what’s special about it? Cognition, 95(2), 201–236.

[67] Jackendoff, R., Pinker, S., 2005. The nature of the language faculty and its implications for evolution of language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky). Cognition, 97(2), 211–225.

[68] Fitch, T., 2011. “Deep homology” in the biology and evolution of language. In Di Sciullo, A.M., Boeckx, C. (Eds.), The biolinguistic enterprise: New perspectives on the evolution and nature of the human language faculty. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 135–168.

[69] Sebeok, T.A. (Ed.) 1977. How animals communicate. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.

[70] Witzany, G. (Ed.) 2014. Biocommunication of animals. Netherlands: Springer.

[71] Maynard-Smith, J.,; Harper, D., 2003. Animal signals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[72] Marler, P., 1984. Animal communication: Affect or cognition? In Scherer, K.R., Ekman, P. (Eds.), Approaches to emotion. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 345–65.

[73] Seyfarth, R.M., Cheney, D.L., 1982. How Monkeys see the world: Areview of recent research on East African Vervet Monkeys. In Snowdon, C.T., Brown, C.H., Petersen, M.R. (Eds.), Primate communication. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 239–52.

[74] Seyfarth, R.M., Cheney, D.L., 1986. Vocal development in vervet Monkeys. Animal Behaviour, 34, 1640–58.

[75] Zuberbühler, K., 2002. A syntactic rule in forest monkey communication. Animal Behaviour, 63(2), 293–299.

[76] Marler, P., 1977. The evolution of communication. In Sebeok, T.A. (Ed.), How animals communicate. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, pp. 45–70.

[77] Demers, R.A., 1988. Linguistics and animal communication. In Newmeyer, F.J. (Ed.), Linguistics: The cambridge survey vol. III. Language: Psychological and biological aspects. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 314–335.

[78] Rendall, D., Owren, M.J., 2013. Communication without meaning or information: Abandoning language-based and informational constructs in animal communication theory. In Stegmann, U.E. (Ed.), Animal communication theory: Information and influence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 151–188.

[79] Haven Wiley, R., 2013. Communication as a transfer of information: Measurement, mechanism and meaning. In Stegmann, U.E. (Ed.), Animal communication theory: Information and influence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 113-132.

[80] Bowling, D.L., Fitch, W.T., 2015. Do animal communication systems have phonemes? Trends in Cognitive Sciences. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2015.08.011

[81] Yip, M.J., 2006. The search for phonology in other species. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(10), 442–446.

[82] Marler, P., 2000. Origins of music and speech: Insights from animals. In Wallin, N., Merker, B., Brown, S. (Eds.) The origins of music. Cambridge: The MIT Press, pp. 31–48.

[83] Barton, R.A., Dunbar, R., 1997. Evolution of the social brain. In Byrne, R., Whiten, A. (Eds.), Machiavellian intelligence II. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 240–263.

[84] Petrides, M., 2013. Neuroanatomy of language regions of the human brain. Elsevier: Academic Press.

[85] Ardila, A., Ostrosky-Solis, F. (Eds.) 1989. Brain organization of language and cognitive processes. New York, NY: Plenum Publishing Company.

[86] Breznitz, Z. (Ed.) 2007. Brain research in language. Berlin: Springer.

[87] Schnelle, H., 2010. Language in the brain. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

[88] Lamb, S.M., 1999. Pathways of the brain: The neurocognitive basis of language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

[89] Pulvermüller, F., 2002. The neuroscience of language: On brain circuits of words and serial order. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

[90] Wray, A.J., 1992. The focusing hypothesis: The theory of left hemisphere lateralised language re-examined. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

[91] Pike, K.L., 1967. Language in relation to a unified theory of structure of human behavior. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton.

[92] Bloom, P., 2000. How children learn the meanings of words. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

[93] Taylor, C., 2016. The language animal: The full shape of the human linguistic capacity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[94] Lieberman, P., 2013. The unpredictable species: What makes humans unique. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

[95] Jackendoff, R., 1987. The status of thematic roles in linguistic theory. Linguistic Inquiry, 18, 369–411.

[96] Saffran, E.M., Schwartz, M.F., Linebarger, M.C., 1998. Semantic influences on thematic role assignment: Evidence from normals and aphasics. Brain and Language, 62(2), 255–297.

[97] Bornkessel, I., Schlesewsky, M., Comrie, B., et al., (Eds.) 2006. Semantic role universals and argument linking: Theoretical, typological, and psycholinguistic perspectives. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton.

[98] Luraghi, S., Narrog, H. (Eds.) 2014. Perspectives on semantic roles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

[99] Terrace, H.S., 1979. Nim: A Chimapnzee who learned sign language. New York: Knopf.

[100] Terrace, H.S., 1979. How Nim Chimpsky changed my mind. Psychology Today, November 1979, pp. 65–76

[101] Terrace, H.S., 1980. More on Monkey talk: Response to Patterson ‘ s rejoinder to Martin Gardners review of Nim and speaking of apes. New York Review of Books, 4 December 1980, p. 59.

[102] Terrace, H.S., 1981. A report to the academy, 1980. In Sebeok, T.A., Rosenthal, R. (Eds.), The Clever Hans phenomenon: Communication with horses, whales, apes, and people. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 364, pp. 94–114.

[103] Terrace., 1984

[104] Bowerman, M., 1990. Mapping thematic roles onto syntactic functions: Are children helped by innate linking rules? Linguistics, 28(6), 1253–1289.

[105] Noble, C.H., Rowland, C.F., Pine, J.M., 2011. Comprehension of argument structure and semantic roles: Evidence from english-learning children and the forced-choice pointing paradigm. Cognitive Science, 35(5), 963–982.

[106] Deffler, S.A., Fox, C., Ogle, C.M., et al., 2016. All my children: The roles of semantic category and phonetic similarity in the misnaming of familiar individuals. Memory & Cognition, 44(7), 989–99.

[107] Brooks, P., Tomasello, M., 1999. How children constrain their argument structure constructions. Language, 75(4), 720–738.

[108] Theakston, A.L., 2012. “The spotty cow tickled the pig with a curly tail”: How do sentence position, preferred argument structure, and referential complexity affect children’s and adults’ choice of referring expression? Applied Psycholinguistics (04), 691–724.

[109] McClure, K., Pine, J.M., Lieven, E.V.M., 2006. Investigating the abstractness of children’s early knowledge of argument structure. Journal of Child Language, 33(04), 693–720.

[110] Peter, M., Chang, F., Pine, J.M., et al., 2015. When and how do children develop knowledge of verb argument structure? Evidence from verb bias effects in a structural priming task. Journal of Memory and Language, 81, 1–15.

[111] Naigles, L.R., Lehrer, N., 2002. Languagegeneral and language-specific influences on children’s acquisition of argument structure: A comparison of French and English. Journal of Child Language, 29(03), 545–566.

[112] Braine, M.D.S., Brody, R.E., Fisch, S.M., et al., 1990. Can children use a verb without exposure to its argument structure? Journal of Child Language, 17(02), 313–342.

[113] Naigles, L.R., Maltempo, A., 2011. Verb argument structure acquisition in young children: Defining a role for discourse. Journal of Child Language, 38(03), 662–674.

[114] Chomsky, N., 1957. Syntactic structures, Second Edition 2002. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

[115] Kako, E., 1999. Elements of syntax in the systems of three language-trained animals. Learning & Behavior, 27(1), 1–14.

[116] Powers, S., 2001. A minimalist approach to phrase structure acquisition. In Alexandrova, G.M., Arnaudova, O. (Eds.), The minimalist parameter: Selected papers from the open linguistics forum, Ottawa, 21–23 March 1997, pp. 33–50.

[117] Fodor, J.D., Crain, S., 1987. Simplicity and generality of rules in language acquisition. In MacWhinney, B. (Ed.), Mechanisms of language acquisition: Proceedings of the 20th Annual Carnegie Mellon Symposium on Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 35–64.

[118] Friederici, A.D., 1983. Children’s sensitivity to function words during sentence comprehension. Linguistics, 21(5), 717–739.

[119] Maloney, E.M., Payne, D.L., Redford, M.A., 2012. What children’s pause patterns indicate about their constituent structure. In BUCLD 36 Proceedings Supplement. Boston, MA.

[120] Taeschner, T., Devescovi, A., Volterra, V., 1988. Affixes and function words in the written language of deaf children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 9(04), 385–401.

[121] Schlaggar, B.L., 2002. Functional neuroanatomical differences between adults and school-age children in the processing of single words. Science, 2965572, 1476–1479.

[122] Gass, S., Ard, J., 1980. L2 data: Their relevance for language universals. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Quarterly, 14(4), 443–452.

[123] Gaer, E.P., 1969. Children’s understanding and production of sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8(2), 289–294.

[124] Karlsson, F., 2007. Constraints on multiple centerembedding of clauses. Journal of Linguistics, 43(2), 365–392.

[125] Clark, A., Lappin, S., 2011. Linguistic nativism and the poverty of the stimulus. Wiley-Blackwell.

[126] Laurence, S., Margolis, E., 2001. The poverty of the stimulus argument. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 52(2), 217–276.

[127] Berwick, R.C., Okanoya, K., Beckers, G.J.L., et al., 2011. Songs to syntax: The linguistics of birdsong. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(3), 113–121.

[128] Berwick, R.C., Pietroski, P., Yankama, B., et al., 2011. Poverty of the stimulus revisited. Cognitive Science, 35(7), 1207–1242.

[129] Vallauri, E.L., 2004. The relation between mind and language: The innateness hypothesis and the poverty of the stimulus. The Linguistic Review, 21(3), 345–387.

[130] Lidz, J., Waxman, S., 2004. Reaffirming the poverty of the stimulus argument: A reply to the replies. Cognition, 93(2), 157–165.

[131] Legate, J.A., Yang, C.D., 2002. Empirical reassessment of stimulus poverty arguments. The Linguistic Review, 18(1–2), 151–162.

[132] Fodor, J.D., Crowther, C., 2002. Understanding stimulus poverty arguments. The Linguistic Review, 18(1–2), 106–145.

[133] Thomas, M., 2002. Development of the concept of “the poverty of the stimulus”. The Linguistic Review, 18(1-2), 51–71.

[134] Pullum, G.K., Scholz, B.C., 2002. Empirical assessment of stimulus poverty arguments. The Linguistic Review, 18(1–2), 9–50.

[135] Lasnik, H., Uriagereka, J., 2002. On the poverty of the challenge. The Linguistic Review, 18(1–2), 147–150.

[136] Limber, J., 1977. Language in child and chimp? American Psychologist, 32, 280–95.

[137] Redshaw, M., 1978. Cognitive development in humans and gorilla infants. Journal of Human Evolution, 7, 133–141.

[138] Greenfield, P.M., Savage-Rumbaugh, S.E., 1993. Comparing communicative competence in child and chimp: The pragmatics of repetition. Journal of Child Language, 20, 1–26.

[139] Dalby, M.A., 1977. Aetiological studies in language retarded children. Neuropediatrics, 8(1), 499–500.

[140] Prior, M.R., Frolley, M., Sanson, A., 1983. Language lateralization in specific reading retarded children and backward readers. Cortex, 19(2), 149–163.

[141] Fowler, A.E., 1984. Language Acquisition of Down’s Syndrome Children: Production and Comprehension. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

[142] Paul, R., Dykens, E., Leckman, J.F., et al., 1987. A comparison of language characteristics of mentally retarded adults with fragile X syndrome and those with nonspecific mental retardation and autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17(4), 457–468.

[143] Abbeduto, L., Boudreau, D., 2004. Theoretical influences on research on language development and intervention in individuals with mental retardation. Development Disabilities Research Reviews, 10(3), 184–192.

[144] Fedor, A., Ittzés, P., Szathmáry, E., 2009. The biological background of syntax evolution. In Bickerton, D., Szathmáry, E. (Eds.), Biological foundations and origin of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 15–40.

[145] Bishop, D.V.M., 2009. What can developmental language impairment tell us about the genetic bases of syntax? In Bickerton, D., Szathmáry, E. (Eds.), Biological foundations and origin of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 185–206.

[146] Dediu, D., Ladd, D., 2007. Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency ofthe adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, Microcephalin and ASPM. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(26), pp. 10944–10949.

[147] Woods, C.G., Bond, J., Enard, W., 2005. Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH): A review of clinical, molecular, and evolutionary findings. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 76(5), 717–728.

[148] Lenneberg, E.H., 1967. Biological foundation of language. New York: John Wiley.

[149] Grela, B.G., 2003. Do children with Down syndrome have difficulty with argument structure? Journal of Communication Disorders, 36(4), 263–279.

[150] Pepperberg, I., 1983. Cogniton in the African Grey Parrot: Preliminary evidence for auditory/vocal comprehension of the class concept. Animal Learning and Behavior, 11, 175–85.

[151] Pepperberg, I., 1987. Acquisition of the same/different concept by an African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus): Learning with respect to categories of color, shape, and material. Animal Learning and Behavior, 15, 423–432.

[152] Pepperberg, I., 1987. Evidence for conceptual quantitative abilities in the African Grey Parrot: Labeling of cardinal sets. Ethology, 75, 37–61.

[153] Pepperberg, I., 1990. Conceptual abilities of some nonprimate species, with an emphasis on an African Grey Parrot. In: Parker, S.T., Gibson, K.R. (Eds.), „Language” and intelligence in monkeys and apes. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 469–507.

[154] Pepperberg, I., 1990. Cognition in an African Gray Parrot (Psittacus erithacus): Further evidence for comprehension of categories and labels. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 104(1), pp. 41–52.

[155] Shettleworth, S.J., 2010. Cognition, evolution and behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[156] Dapretto, M., Bookheimer, S.Y., 1999. Form and content: Dissociating syntax and semantics in sentence comprehension. Neuron, 24(2), 427–432.

[157] Wright, P., Stamatakis, E.A., Tyler, L.K., 2012. Differentiating hemispheric contributions to syntax and semantics in patients with lefthemisphere lesions. Journal of Neuroscience, 32(24), 8149–8157.

[158] Ullman, M.T., 2001. A neurocognitive perspective on language: The declarative/procedural model. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2(10), 717–726.

[159] Miozzo, M., Fischer-Baum, S., Postman, J.A., 2010. A selective deficit for inflection production. Neuropsychologia, 48(9), 2427–2436.

[160] Połczyńska, M., Curtiss, S., Walshaw, P., et al., 2014. Grammar tests increase the ability to lateralize language function in the Wada test. Epilepsy Research, 108(10), 1864–1873.

[161] Bornkessel, I., Zysset, S., Friederici, A.D.F., et al., 2005. Who did what to whom? The neural basis of argument hierarchies during language comprehension. NeuroImage, 26(1), pp. 221–233.

[162] Menenti, L., Gierhan, S.M.E., Segaert, K., et al., 2011. Shared language: Overlap and segregation of the neuronal infrastructure for speaking and listening revealed by functional MRI. Psychological Science, 22(9), 1173–1182.

[163] Dronkers, N.F., Wilkins, D.P., Van Valin R.D.Jr., et al., 2004. Lesion analysis of the brain areas involved in language comprehension. Cognition, 92(1–2), 145–177.

[164] Yamada, Y., Neville, H.J., 2007. An ERP study of syntactic processing in English and nonsense sentences. Brain Research, 1130, 167–180.

[165] Batterink, L., Neville, H.J., 2013. The human brain processes syntax in the absence of conscious awareness. Journal of Neuroscience, 33(19), 8528–8533.

[166] Pulvermüller, F., Shtyrov, Y., Hasting, A.S., et al., 2008. Syntax as a reflex: Neurophysiological evidence for early automaticity of grammatical processing. Brain and Language, 104(3), 244–253.

[167] Pulvermüller, F., Assadollahi, R., 2007. Grammar or serial order? Discrete combinatorial brain mechanisms reflected by the syntactic mismatch negativity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19(6), 971–980.

[168] Sauerland, U., Gärtner, H.M. (Eds.) 2007. Interfaces + recursion = language? Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

[169] Terrace., 1983

[170] Rowe, D.L., Cooper, N.J., Liddell, B.J., et al., 2007. Brain Structure and Function Correlates of general and social cognition. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 06(01), 35–74.

[171] Atkinson, A.P., Wheeler, M., 2004. The grain of domains: The evolutionary-psychological case against domain-general cognition. Mind & Language, 19(2), 147–176.

[172] Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P., Johnson, V., 2006. Do some taxa have better domaingeneral cognition than others? A meta-analysis of Nonhuman primate studies. Evolutionary Psychology, 4(1), 149–196.

[173] Geary, D.C., 2004. Origin of mind: Evolution of brain, cognition, and general intelligence. Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association (APA).

[174] Roberts, M.J. (Ed.) 2007. Integrating the mind: Domain general versus domain specific processes in higher cognition. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

[175] Martindale, C., Covello, E., West, A., 1986. Primary process cognition and hemispheric asymmetry. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 147(1), 79–87.

[176] Pulvermüller, F., Kherif, F., Hauk, O., et al., 2009. Distributed cell assemblies for general lexical and category-specific semantic processing as revealed by fMRI cluster analysis. Human Brain Mapping, 30(12), 3837–3850.

[177] Loring, D.W., Meador, K.J., Lee, G.P., et al., 1992. Amobarbital effects and lateralized brain function: The Wada test. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[178] Abou-Khalil, B., 2007. An update on determination of language dominance in screening for epilepsy surgery: The Wada test and newer noninvasive alternatives. Epilepsia, 48(3), 442–455.

[179] Doss, R.C., Zhang, W., Risse, G.L., et al., 2009. Lateralizing language with magnetic source imaging: Validation based on the Wada test. Epilepsia, 50(10), 2242–2248.

[180] Gutbrod, K., Spring, D., Degonda, N., et al., 2012. Determination of language dominance: Wada test and fMRI compared using a novel sentence task. Journal of Neuroimaging, 22(3), 1–9.

[181] Gazzaniga, M.S., 1980. The role of language for conscious experience: Observations from splitbrain man. Progress in Brain Research, 54, 689–696.

[182] Levy, J., Trevarthen, C., 1977. Perceptual, semantic and phonetic aspects of elementary language processes in split-brain patients. Brain, 100(1), 105–118.

[183] Goodman, R.A., Whitaker, H.A., 1985. Hemispherectomy: A review (1928-1981) with special reference to the linguistic abilities and disabilities if the residual right hemisphere. In Best, C.T. (Ed.), Hemispheric function and collaboration in the child. New York: Academic Press, pp. 121–156.

[184] Grabowecky, M., Kingstone, A., 2004. Can semantic information be transferred between hemispheres in the split-brain? Brain and Cognition, 55(2), 310–313.

[185] Lambert, A.J., 1991. Interhemispheric interaction in the split-brain. Neuropsychologia, 29(10), 941–948.

[186] Kingstone, A., Gazzaniga, M.S., 1995. Subcortical transfer of higher order information: More illusory than real? Neuropsychology, 9(3), 321–328.

[187] Lambert, A.J., Beard, C.T., Thompson, R.J., 1988. Selective attention, visual laterality, awareness, and perceiving the meaning of parafoveally presented words. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40(4), 615–652.

[188] Linebarger, M.C., Schwartz, M.F., Saffran, E.M., 1983. Sensitivity to grammatical structure in socalled agrammatic aphasics. Cognition, 13(3), 361–392.

[189] Zurif, E., Grodzinsky, Y., 1983. Sensitivity to grammatical structure in agrammatic aphasics: A reply to Linebarger, Schwartz and Saffran. Cognition, 15(1–3), pp. 207–213.

[190] Linebarger, M.C., Schwartz, M.F., Saffran, E.M., 1983. Syntactic processing in agrammatism: A reply to Zurif and Grodzinsky. Cognition, 15(1–3), 215–225.

[191] Schwartz, M.F., Linebarger, M.C., Saffran, E.M., et al., 1987. Syntactic transparency and sentence interpretation in aphasia. Language and Cognitive Processes, 2(2), 85–113.

[192] Hinzen, W., 2006. Mind design and minimal syntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[193] Hinzen, W., 2007. An essay on names and truth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[194] Hinzen, W., 2011. Language and thought. In: Boeckx, C. (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of linguistic minimalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Chapter 22.

[195] Hinzen, W., 2012. The emergence of complex language. In McFarland, D., Stenning, K., McGonigle-Chalmers, M. (Eds.), The complex mind an interdisciplinary approach. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 243–263.

[196] Hinzen, W., Sheehan, M., 2013. The philosophy of universal grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[197] Terrace, H.S., 2005. Metacognition and the evolution of language. In Terrace, H., Metcalfe, J. (Eds.), The Missing link in cognition: Origins of self-reflective consciousness. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 84–115.

[198] Forrester, G.S., 2008. A multidimensional approach to investigations of behaviour: Revealing structure in animal communication signals. Animal Behaviour, 76(5), 1749–1760.

[199] Kauffman, S.A., 2000. Investigations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[200] Boeckx, C., 2009. The nature of merge: Consequences for language, mind and biology. In Piattelli-Palmarini, M., Uriagereka, J., Salaburu, P. (Eds.), Of minds and language: a dialogue with Noam Chomsky in the Basque country. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 44–57.

[201] Boeckx, C., 2012. The emergence of language, from a biolinguistic point of view. In Tallerman, M., Gibson, K.R. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of language evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 492–501.

[202] Chomsky, N., 1990. On formalization and formal linguistics. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 8(1), 143–147.

[203] Jackendoff, R., 1993. Patterns in the mind: Language and human nature. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

[204] Jackendoff, R., 2002. Foundations of language: Brain, meaning, grammar, evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[205] Jackendoff, R., 2007. A parallel architecture perspective on language processing. Brain Research, 1146, 2–22.

[206] Pinker, S., 1989. Learnability and cognition: The acquisition of argument structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 176 176 23
PDF Downloads 53 53 10