The diachronic development of combining forms in scientific writing

Open access

Abstract

This paper addresses the diachronic development of combining forms in English scientific texts over approximately 350 years, from the early stages of the first scholarly journals that were published in English to contemporary English scientific publications. In this paper a critical discussion of the category of combining forms is presented and a case study is produced to examine the role of selected combining forms in two diachronic English corpora.

A thesaurus of English word roots. (2014). Danner, H.G. (ed.) Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Amiot, D. & Dal, G. (2007). Integrating neoclassical combining forms into a lexeme-based morphology. In Proceedings of the 5th Mediterranean Morphology Meeting (MMM5), Fréjus, 15-18 September 2005, p. 322-336.

Ayers, D.M. (1965). English words from Latin and Greek elements. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Ayers, D.M. (1972). Bioscientific terminology. Words from Latin and Greek stems. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Baldi, P. & Dawar, C. (2000). Creative processes. In Morphology. An international handbook on inflection and word formation, 1. Booij, G.E., Lehmann, C. & Mugdan, J. (eds.). Berlin: De Gruyter, p. 963-972.

Bauer, L. (1983). English word formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bauer, L. (1998). Is there a class of neoclassical compounds, and if so is it productive? In Linguistics, 36 (3), p. 403-422.

Bauer, L. (2001). Morphological productivity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bauer, L. (2006). Compounds and minor word formation types. In: The handbook of English linguistics. Aarts, B. & McMahon A. (eds.). Malden, MA: Blackwell. p. 483-506.

Bauer, L., Lieber, R. & Plag, I. (2013). Oxford reference guide to English morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Booij, G. (2005). The grammar of words. An introduction to linguistic morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bowker, L. & Hawkins, S. (2006). Variation in the organization of medical terms – Exploring some motivations for term choice. In Terminology, 12 (1), p. 79-110.

Busse, U. (2002). Case study III: English, In Lexicology. An international handbook on the nature and structure of words and vocabularies. [HSK 21, 1]. Cruse, D.A., Hundsnurscher, F., Job, M. et al. (eds.). Berlin-New York: de Gruyter, p. 828-836.

Busse, U. & Schneider, D. (2007). Kürze im englischen Wortschatz. In Sprachliche Kürze: Konzeptuelle, strukturelle und pragmatische Aspekte. (= Linguistik – Impulse & Tendenzen, 27). Bär, J.A., Roelcke T. & Steinhauer, A. (eds.). Berlin-New York: De Gruyter, p. 159-180.

Cannon, G. (1986). Blends in English word formation. In Linguistics, 24, p. 725-753.

Concise Oxford companion to the English language. (2005). McArthur, T. (ed.) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Danks, D. (2003). Separating blends: a formal investigation of the blending process in English and its relationship to associated word formation processes, PhD thesis, University of Liverpool. Available at: http://rdues.bcu.ac.uk/debbiedanks.html

Davies, M. (2008-) The corpus of contemporary American English (COCA): 520 million words, 1990-present. Available at http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/

Davies, M. (2011-) The Google Books Corpus. Based on Google Books N-Grams. Available at http://googlebooks.byu.edu/

De Smet, H. (2016). How gradual change progresses: The interaction between convention and innovation. In Language variation and change, 28 (1), p. 83-102.

Degaetano-Ortlieb, S., Kermes, H., Lapshinova-Koltunski, E. et al. (2013). SciTex – A diachronic corpus for analyzing the development of scientific registers. In New methods in historical corpus linguistics. Corpus linguistics and interdisciplinary perspectives on language – CLIP, 3. Bennett, P., Durrell, M., Scheible, S. et al. (eds.). Tübingen: Narr, p. 93-104.

Degaetano-Ortlieb, S. & Teich, E. (2016). Information-based modelling of diachronic linguistic change: from typicality to productivity In Proceedings of Language technologies for the socio-economic sciences and humanities (LATECH’16), Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL), 7-12 August 2016, Berlin, Germany, p. 165-173.

Degaetano-Ortlieb, S. & Teich, E. (2017). Modelling intra-textual variation with entropy and surprisal: topical vs. stylistic patterns. In Proceedings of Language technologies for the socio-economic sciences and humanities (LATECH’17), Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL), Vancouver, Canada, 30 July-4 August 2017, p. 68-77.

Degaetano-Ortlieb, S., Kermes, H., Khamis, A. et al. (forthcoming). An information-theoretic approach to modeling diachronic change in scientific English. In Selected papers from Varieng – From data to evidence (d2e), Brill, Language and Computers.

Degaetano-Ortlieb, S., Kermes, H., Teich, E. (submitted). Capturing diachronic register variation using entropy and surprisal. In Digital scholarship in the humanities (DSH). Oxford Academic.

Demberg, V. & Keller, F. (2008). Data from eye-tracking corpora as evidence for theories of syntactic processing complexity. In Cognition, 109, p. 193-210.

Denning, K., Kessler, B. & Leben, W.R. (2007). English vocabulary elements, 2nd ed. Oxford-New York: Oxford University Press.

Dictionary of English word-roots: English-roots and roots-English, with examples and exercises. (1969). Smith R.W.L. Totowa: Littlefield.

Dictionary of word roots and combining forms, compiled from the Greek, Latin, and other languages, with special reference to biological terms and scientific names. (1960). Borror, D.J. (ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.

Dofka, C.M. (2013). Dental terminology. 3rd ed. Clifton Park, N.Y.: Delmar: Cengage Learning.

Donalies, E. (2000). Das Konfix. Zur Definition einer zentralen Einheit der deutschen Wortbildung. In Deutsche Sprache, 28, p. 144-159.

Donalies, E. (2009). Stiefliches Geofaszintainment. Über Konfixtheorien. In Studien zur Fremdwortbildung. (= Germanistische Linguistik 197/198), Müller, P.O. (ed.). Hildesheim: Olms, p. 41-64.

Dressler, W.U. (2000). Extragrammatical vs. marginal morphology. In Extragrammatical and marginal morphology. Doleschal, U. & Thornton, A.M. (eds.). Munich: Lincom, p. 1-10.

Durkin, P. (1999). Root and branch: revising the etymological component of the Oxford English Dictionary, In: Transactions of the Philological Society, 97, p.1-49.

Eins, W. (2008). Muster und Konstituenten der Lehnwortbildung. Das Konfix-Konzept und seine Grenzen. Hildesheim et al.: Olms.

Eins, W. (2009). Alter Wein in neuen Schläuchen? Zum Konfix. In Studien zur Fremdwortbildung. Müller, P.O. (ed.). Hildesheim et al.: Olms, p. 65-88.

Eins, W. (2015). Types of foreign word formation. In Word formation. An international handbook of the languages of Europe. Müller, P.O., Ohnheiser, I., Olsen, S. et al. (eds.). Berlin-Boston: de Gruyter, p. 1561-1579.

Eisenberg, P. (2012). Das Fremdwort im Deutschen. 2nd ed. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Elsen, H. (2005). Deutsche Konfixe. In Deutsche Sprache, 33 (2), p. 133-140.

Elsen, H. (2013a). Problemzonen der Wortbildung und der Eintrag im Wörterbuch. In Wortbildung im elektronischen Wörterbuch. Schriften des Instituts für Deutsche Sprache. Klosa, A. (ed.). Tübingen: Narr, p. 87-103.

Elsen, H. (2013b). Zwischen Simplex und komplexem Wort – eine holistische Sichtweise. In “Wenn die Ränder ins Zentrum drängen”. Außenseiter in der Wortbildung(sforschung). Born J., & Pöckl, W. (eds.). Berlin: Frank & Timme, p. 25-42.

Evert, S. (2005). The CQP query language tutorial. IMS: Stuttgart University.

Firth, J. R. (1930). Speech. London: Oxford University Press.

Fleischer, W. (1995). Konfixe. In Wort und Wortschatz. Beiträge zur Lexikologie. Pohl, I. & Ehrhardt, H. (eds.). Tübingen: Niemeyer, p. 61-68.

Fleischer, W. & Barz, I. (1995). Wortbildung der deutschen Gegenwartssprache. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Fradin, B. (2000). Combining forms, blends and related phenomena. In Extragrammatical morphology and marginal morphology. Doleschal, U. & Thornton A.M. (eds.). Munich: Lincom, p. 11-59.

Grimm, H.-J. (1997). Konfixe. Beobachtungen in Tageszeitungen und in Wörterbüchern. In Nominationsforschung im Deutschen. Barz, I. & Schröder, M. (eds.). Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang, p. 277-284.

Guide to the third edition of the OED Available at: http://public.oed.com/the-oed-today/guide-to-the-third-edition-of-the-oed/

Hacken, P. ten (1994). Defining morphology: A principled approach to determining the boundaries of compounding, derivation, and inflection. Hildesheim: Olms.

Hacken, P. ten & Panocová R. (2014). Neoclassical formatives in dictionaries. In Proceedings of the 16th EURALEX International Congress, Bolzano, Italy, 15-19 July 2014, p. 1059-1072.

Hale, J. (2001). A probabilistic Earley parser as a psycholinguistic model. In Proceedings of the 2nd meeting of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics on Language technologies (NAACL’01), Pittsburgh, USA, 1-7 June 2001. Stroudsburg, PA: Association for Computational Linguistics, p. 1-8.

Hamans, C. (2014). The status of -o- or on the allomorphy of neo-classical compounds. In Linguistic insights: studies on languages, Cruz Cabanillas, I. & Tejedor Martínez, C. (eds.). Alcalá de Henares: Universidad de Alcalá, Servicio de Publicaciones, p. 208-217.

Haspelmath, M. (2002). Understanding morphology. London: Arnold.

How to use the OED – Key to frequency Available at: http://public.oed.com/how-to-use-the-oed/key-to-frequency/

Iacobini, C. (1997). Distinguishing derivational prefixes from initial combining forms. In Proceedings of 1st Mediterranean Morphology Meeting, Mytilene, Greece, 19-21 September 1997, p. 132-140.

Iacobini, C. & Giuliani, A. (2010). A multidimensional approach to the classification of combining forms. In Italian journal of linguistics, 22 (2), p. 278-316.

Kastovsky, D. (2009a). Astronaut, astrology, astrophysics: About combining forms, classical compounds and affixoids. In Selected Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on New Approaches in English Historical Lexis (HEL-LEX), Lammi, Finland, 25-28 April 2008, p. 1-13.

Kastovsky, D. (2009b). Diachronic perspectives. In The Oxford handbook of compounding. Lieber, R. & Štekauer, P. (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 323-340.

Kean, D. 2017. 30 January. “Oxford dictionary considers including wave of Trumpian neologisms” The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/jan/30/oxford-dictionary-donald-trump-neologisms

Kermes, H., Knappen, J., Degaetano-Ortlieb, S. et al. (2016). The Royal Society Corpus: From uncharted data to corpus. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’16), Portorož, Slovenia, 23-28 May 2016, p. 1928-1931.

Kirkness, A. (2005) Zur lexikographischen Dokumentation eurolateinischer Wortbildungseinheiten. Vergleichende Beobachtungen am Beispiel aero-. In Fremdwortbildung. Theorie und Praxis in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Müller, P.O. (ed.). Frankfurt/M.: Lang, p. 447-483.

Kolin, P. C. (1979). The pseudo-suffix -oholic. In: American Speech, 54 (1), p. 74-76.

Lehrer, A. (1998). Scapes, holics and thons: The semantics of English combining forms. In: American Speech, 73(1), p. 3-28.

Levy, R. (2008). Expectation-based syntactic comprehension. In Cognition, 106(3), p. 1126-1177.

Levy, R. & Jaeger, T. F. (2007). Speakers optimize information density through syntactic reduction. In Advances in neural information processing systems (NIPS), 19. Schlökopf B., Platt J., Hoffman T. (eds.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p. 849-856.

Lieber, R. (2009). A lexical semantic approach to compounding. In The Oxford handbook of compounding. Lieber, R. & Štekauer, P. (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 436-452.

Lindner, T. & Rainer, F. (2015). Word formation in Neo-Latin. In Word formation. An international handbook of the languages of Europe. Müller, P. O., Ohnheiser, I., Olsen, S. et al. (eds.). Berlin & Boston: de Gruyter, p. 1580-1597.

Lüdeling, A., Schmid, T. & Kiokpasoglou, S. (2002). Neoclassical word formation in German. In Yearbook of morphology. Booij, G., & Marle, J. van (eds.). Berlin: Springer Netherland, p. 253-283.

Maier, E.: The ‘gate’ suffix. Available at: http://public.oed.com/aspects-of-english/english-in-use/the-gate-suffix/

Marchand, H. (1969). The categories and types of present-day English word formation – A synchronic-diachronic approach. 2nd ed. Munich: C.H. Beck.

Mattiello, E. (2013). Extra-grammatical morphology in English. Abbreviations, blends, reduplicatives, and related phenomena. Berlin & Boston: de Gruyter

Mattiello, E. (2017). Analogy in word formation: A study of English neologisms and occasionalisms. Berlin & Boston: de Gruyter.

Macmillan Open Dictionary: ‘combining form’ Available at: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/combining-form

McCauley, J. (2006). Technical combining forms in the third edition of the OED: Word formation in a historical dictionary. In Selected Proceedings of the 2005 Symposium on New Approaches in English Historical Lexis (HEL-LEX), Helsinki, Finland, 17-19 March 2005, p. 95-104.

Meesters, G. (2004). Marginale morfologie in het Nederlands. Paradigmatische samenstellingen, neo-klassieke composita en splintercomposita.Gent: Koninklijke Academie voor Nederlandse Taal-en Letterkunde.

Menzel, K. & Lapshinova-Koltunski, E. (2014). Kontrastive Analyse deutscher und englischer Kohäsionsmittel in verschiedenen Diskurstypen. In Tekst i dyskurs – Text und Diskurs. Zeitschrift der Abteilung für germanistische Sprachwissenschaft des Germanistischen Instituts Warschau, 7, p. 247-266.

Menzel, K. (2016). The elusive ellipsis – the complex history of a vague grammatical concept in need of empirical grounding. In Lege artis. Language yesterday, today, tomorrow, The journal of the University of SS Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, I (1), June 2016, p. 163-201. DOI: 10.1515/lart-2016-0004

Merriam-Webster Online. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, ‘combining form’, Available at: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/combining%20form

Michel, S. (2009). Das Konfix zwischen Langue und Parole. Ansätze zu einer sprachgebrauchsbezogenen Definition und Typologie. In Studien zur Fremdwortbildung. (= Germanistische Linguistik 197/198). Müller, P.O. (ed.). Hildesheim et al.: Olms, p. 91-140.

Miller, G. (2014). English lexicogenesis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Müller-Spitzer, C. (2016). Wörterbuchbenutzungsforschung. In Internetlexikografie. Ein Kompendium. Klosa, A. & Müller-Spitzer, C. (eds.). Berlin-Boston: de Gruyter, p. 291-342.

Mugdan, J. (1989). Grammar in dictionaries of languages for special purposes (LSP). In Hermes, 3, p. 125-142.

Nord, W.R. & Connell, A.F. (2011). Rethinking the knowledge controversy in organization studies: A generative uncertainty perspective. New York: Routledge.

Ologies and isms: A dictionary of word beginnings and endings. (2005). Quinion, M. (ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

-Ologies and -Isms: A thematic dictionary (1986). 3rd ed. Urdang, L. (ed.), Detroit: Gale Research.

Olsen, S. (2014). Delineating derivation and compounding. In The Oxford handbook of derivational morphology. Lieber, R. & Stekauer, P. (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 26-49.

Oxford English Dictionary. (1884-1928, 1st ed. (‘A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles’) / 1989 2nd ed., 2000-3rd ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press. 3rd ed. Available at: http://www.oed.com/

Oxford English Dictionary Online, ‘Advanced Search’ Available at: http://www.oed.com/advancedsearch

Oxford English Dictionary Online, Advanced Search results for ‘combining forms’ Available at: http://www.oed.com/search?case-insensitive=true&nearDistance=1&ordered=false&pos_0=combining+form&scope=ENTRY

Oxford Dictionaries, ‘combining form’. Available at: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/combining_form

Oxford English Dictionary Online, ‘-lysis’, comb. form. Available at: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/111701

Oxford English Dictionary Online, ‘lyso-’, comb. form. Available at: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/111702

Panocová, R. (2015). Categories of word formation and borrowing: an onomasiological account of neoclassical formations. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Partridge, E. (1966) Origins: A short etymological dictionary of Modern English. 4th ed. London & New York: Routledge.

Petropoulou, E. (2009): On the parallel between neoclassical compounds in English and Modern Greek. In Patras Working Papers in Linguistics, 1, p. 40-58.

Plag, I. (2003). Word formation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pöckl, W. (2010). Le confixe: element rebelle a vocation internationale. In Actes du XXVe Congrès de Linguistique et de Philologie Romanes, 7, Innsbruck, Austria, 3-8 September 2007. Berlin: De Gruyter, p. 471-476.

Pöckl, W. (2013). Konfixe – ein unerschöpflicher Vorrat an Wortbausteinen? In Fachsprache(n) in der Romania – Entwicklung, Verwendung, Übersetzung. Sergo, L. & Wienen, U. (eds.). Berlin: Frank & Timme, p. 97-109.

Pöckl, W. (2015). Foreign word formation, language planning and purism. In Word formation. An international handbook of the languages of Europe. Müller, P.O., Ohnheiser, I., Olsen, S. et al. (eds.). Berlin & Boston: De Gruyter, p. 1598-1614.

Prćić, T. (1999). The treatment of affixes in the ‘Big Four’ EFL dictionaries. In International journal of lexicography, 12, p. 263-279.

Prćić, T. (2007). Headhood of suffixes and final combining forms in English word formation. In Acta linguistica Hungarica, 54, p. 381-392.

Prćić, T. (2005). Prefixes vs initial combining forms in English: a lexicographic perspective. In International journal of lexicography, 18, p. 313-334.

Prćić, T. (2008). Suffixes vs. final combining forms in English. A lexicographic perspective. In International journal of lexicography, 21(1), p. 1-22.

Prefixes and other word-initial elements of English. (1984). Urdang, L. (ed.). Detroit: Gale Research.

Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Svartvik, J. et al. (1985). A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London: Longman.

Radimský, J. (2015). Noun+noun compounds in Italian: A corpus-based study. České Budějovice: Jihočeská univerzita.

Robertson’s words for a modern age. A cross reference of Latin and Greek combining elements. (1991). Robertson, J.G. (ed.). Eugene, OR: Senior Scribe Publications.

Saarbrücken CQPweb. Available at: http://corpora.clarin-d.uni-saarland.de/cqpweb/

Scalise, S. & Bisetto, A. (2009). The classification of compounds. In The Oxford handbook of compounding. Lieber, R. & Štekauer, P. (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 34-53.

Schulz, E., Oh, Y.M., Malisz, Z. et al. (2016). Impact of prosodic structure and information density on vowel space size. In Proceedings of speech prosody 2016. Boston, USA, 31 May-3 June 2016, p. 350-354.

Seiffert, A. (2008). Autonomie und Isonomie fremder und indigener Wortbildung am Beispiel ausgewählter numerativer Wortbildungseinheiten. Berlin: Frank & Timme.

Shannon, C.E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. In Bell syst tech journal, 27, p. 379-423 (Part I) & p. 623-656 (Part II).

Stein, G. (1973). English word formation over two centuries. Tübingen: Narr.

Stein G. (1977). English combining-forms. In Linguistica, 9, p. 140-147.

Suffixes and other word-initial elements of English. (1982), Urdang, L. (ed.). Detroit: Gale Research.

Szymanek, B. (2005). The latest trends in English word formation. In Handbook of word formation. Stekauer P., & Lieber, R. (eds.). Dordrecht: Springer, p. 429-448.

The Encyclopædia Britannica: A dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information. (1859). 8th ed. Edinburgh: Adam & Charles Black. Vol. 17.

Tomaszewicz, E. (2008). Novel words with final combining forms in English. A case for blends in word formation. In Poznań studies in contemporary linguistics, 44 (3), p. 363-378.

Töpel, A. (2013). Die Wortbildungsangaben im Online-Wörterbuch und wie Nutzer sie beurteilen – eine Umfrage zu elexiko. In Wortbildung im elektronischen Wörterbuch. Klosa, A. (ed.). Tübingen: Narr, p. 197-214.

Trésor de la langue française informatisé (TLFi) Available at: http://atilf.atilf.fr/

Warner Marien, M. (2006). Photography: A cultural history, 2nd ed. London: Laurence King Publishing.

Warren, B. (1990). The importance of combining forms. In Contemporary morphology. Dressler, W.U., Luschützky, H.C, Pfeiffer, O.E. et al. (eds.). Berlin: de Gruyter, p. 111-132.

Wiemeyer, L. (forthcoming). The diachronic productivity of native combining forms in English. In Corpus linguistics, context and culture. Proceedings of the 35th conference of the international computer archive of modern and medieval English (ICAME 35). Nottingham, UK, 30 April-5 May, 2014.

Worbs, E. (1995). Die Spätfolgen der Watergate-Affäre im Wortschatz (Das Intermorphem -gate in den slavischen Sprachen und im Deutschen). In Sprachtransfer – Kulturtransfer. Salnikow, N. (ed.). Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang, p. 169-181.

Word parts dictionary. Standard and reverse listings of prefixes, suffixes, roots and combining forms. (2000). Sheehan, M.J. (ed.). 2nd ed. Jefferson, NC & London: MCFarland.

Young, M.E., Norman, G.R. & Humphreys, K.R. (2008). The role of medical language in changing public perceptions of illness. In PLoSONE, 3 (12), e3875. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003875

Zelle, B.D. (2016). Induction, semantic validation and evaluation of a derivational morphology lexicon for German, PhD dissertation, Heidelberg. Available at: http://www.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/archiv/20539

Zimmerer, F., Andreeva, B., Möbius, B. et al. (2017). Perzeption von Sprechgeschwindigkeit und der (nicht nachgewiesene) Einfluss von Surprisal. In Proceedings of the 28th Conference ‘Elektronische Sprachsignalverarbeitung 2017’ – Studientexte zur Sprachkommunikation, 86, Saarbrücken, Germany, 15-17 March 2017, p. 174-179.

Lege Artis

Language yesterday, today, tomorrow

Journal Information

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 228 228 34
PDF Downloads 82 82 19